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2021中国太阳能光伏发电行业现状与前景
返回列表 来源: 西安宇洲新能源科技有限公司 发布日期: 2021.08.31 浏览次数:

        在相关政策对中国太阳能光伏发电行业的不断完善和大力支持下,中国光伏产业迅速发展,目前已呈现出区域化、集群化,临近企业之间已形成产业链互补和经济合作,产业的竞争力实现了整体提高。
       随着国家政策对光伏产业支持力度的不断加大,产业市场规模仍将保持高幅度增长的趋势。目前,光伏产业链的各个环节面临的竞争环境差别很大,从整体来看,随着中国光伏产业政策的不断出台,各地的光伏产业发展都在向更高水平发展,投资规模在扩大,产业技术水平的升级速度也在加快。产业面临发展的高速成长期,整体竞争程度较高,光伏发电已经成为中国清洁能源产业发展的战略方向       近几年来,中国光伏产业发展迅速,年均新增装机量持续上扬。随着产业发展的逐步成熟,光伏企业亟待自主创新、分布式光伏加速前行、“平价上网”渐行渐近等特征日益明显。
       所谓光伏发电是利用半导体界面的光生伏特效应而将光能直接转变为电能的一种技术。主要由太阳电池板(组件)、控制器和逆变器三大部分组成,主要部件由电子元器件构成。太阳能电池经过串联后进行封装保护可形成大面积的太阳电池组件,再配合上功率控制器等部件就形成了光伏发电装置。
       光伏发电是根据光生伏特效应原理,利用太阳电池将太阳光能直接转化为电能。不论是独立使用还是并网发电,光伏发电系统主要由太阳电池板(组件)、控制器和逆变器三大部分组成,它们主要由电子元器件构成,不涉及机械部件。
       2019年的平价上网项目得到了政策上最大力度的支持,有望为光伏市场带来新机遇。从行业发展的角度来说,平价上网时代即将来临,未来几年时间里,能拿到补贴的项目势必会越来越少,平价上网项目将成为主流,最终行业将彻底告别补贴,进入无补贴时代。因此,从现在开始,鼓励平价上网项目的优先建设对行业的未来发展具有重要意义。
       根据2019年发布的《国家发展改革委关于完善风电上网电价政策的通知》,2018年底之前核准的陆上风电项目,2020年底前仍未完成并网的,国家不再补贴;2019年1月1日至2020年底前核准的陆上风电项目,2021年底前仍未完成并网的,国家不再补贴。自2021年1月1日开始,新核准的陆上风电项目全面实现平价上网,国家不再补贴。
       中国光伏行业协会预测,“十四五”期间,国内年均光伏新增装机规模一般预计是7000万千瓦,乐观预计是9000万千瓦。国内400余家风能企业代表联合此前发布的《风能北京宣言》提出,到2030年至少达到8亿千瓦,到2060年至少达到30亿千瓦。  目前中国光伏正“光耀全球”,在光伏制造、光伏发电装机量、光伏发电量三大方面均位居“世界第一”,至2019年底,中国光伏产业链各环节产能在全球占比均绝对领先,硅片环节占比最高达94%左右。光伏行业存在需求、供给、技术三重周期而又由于成本下降迅速,因此成长空间巨大,同时光伏市值又受到预期驱动和盈利的支撑,未来具备较好投资价值。

Under the continuous improvement and strong support of relevant policies for China's solar photovoltaic industry, China's photovoltaic industry has developed rapidly, and now it has shown regionalization and clustering. Industrial chain complementarity and economic cooperation have been formed between neighboring enterprises, and the competitiveness of the industry has been improved as a whole.

With the increasing support of national policies for the photovoltaic industry, the industrial market scale will continue to maintain a high growth trend.At present, each link of the photovoltaic industry chain is facing a very different competitive environment. On the whole, with the continuous introduction of China's photovoltaic industry policy, the development of the photovoltaic industry is developing to a higher level, the scale of investment is expanding, and the upgrading speed of industrial technology is also accelerating. In recent years, China's photovoltaic industry has been developing rapidly, with the annual number of newly installed machines rising continuously.With the gradual maturity of industrial development, photovoltaic enterprises urgently need independent innovation, distributed photovoltaic accelerated forward, "affordable Internet access" gradually become increasingly obvious characteristics.

Photovoltaic power generation is a technology that converts light energy directly into electricity by using the photogenerating volt effect of semiconductor interface. It is mainly composed of solar panels (components), controllers and inverters, and the main components are composed of electronic components.Solar cells are packaged and protected in series to form large-area solar cell modules, and then combined with power controllers and other components to form photovoltaic power generation devices.

Photovoltaic power generation is based on the principle of photogenerating volt effect, using solar cells to directly convert solar light energy into electrical energy. Whether used independently or connected to the grid, photovoltaic power generation system is mainly composed of solar panels (components), controllers and inverters, which are mainly composed of electronic components and do not involve mechanical components.

The affordable access project in 2019 has received the biggest policy support and is expected to bring new opportunities to the photovoltaic market. From the perspective of industry development, the era of affordable Internet is coming. In the next few years, there will be less and less subsidized projects, and affordable Internet projects will become the mainstream. Finally, the industry will completely bid farewell to subsidies and enter the era of no subsidy.Therefore, from now on, it is important to encourage the priority construction of affordable Internet projects for the future development of the industry.

According to the Notice of the National Development and Reform Commission on Improving the Wind Power On-grid Pricing Policy issued in 2019, the state will no longer subsidize onshore wind power projects approved by the end of 2018 but not completed by the end of 2020. Onshore wind projects approved between January 1, 2019 and the end of 2020 will not be subsidized by the state if they are still not connected to the grid by the end of 2021. Starting from January 1, 2021, the newly approved onshore wind power projects will fully realize affordable Internet access, and the state will no longer provide subsidies.

China Photovoltaic Industry Association predicts that during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, the average annual installed capacity of photovoltaic in China is generally expected to be 70 million kW, and the optimistic estimate is 90 million kW. The Beijing Declaration on Wind Energy, jointly released by representatives of more than 400 wind energy enterprises in China, proposed to reach at least 800 million kilowatts by 2030 and 3 billion kilowatts by 2060. At present, China's pv industry is shining globally, ranking first in the world in pv manufacturing, pv power generation and pv power generation. By the end of 2019, China's pv industry chain took an absolute lead in the global production capacity, with silicon wafer accounting for up to 94%.The photovoltaic industry has a triple cycle of demand, supply and technology, and due to the rapid cost decline, so the growth space is huge. At the same time, the market value of photovoltaic is driven by expectations and supported by profits, so it has good investment value in the future.


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