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2022年做光伏太阳能,请务必收下这份避坑指南
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2021 年,有 15 家光伏上市公司的总市值超过了 500 亿元,其中 11 家总市值涨破千亿,更有 多达百余家企业跨界入局,鏖战光伏新赛道

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

在双碳目标指引下,光伏行业迎来了真正的爆发期。光伏也成为了一个令人“眼馋”的行业。 尤其是在下游电站端,企业扎堆最为集中 。2020年以来,先后有65家企业布局电站开发业务,各有侧重。


新老玩家踊跃布局光伏、积极竞争推动行业发展,自然是好事一桩。然而, 光伏行业堪称最复杂的行业之一,下游电站开发端更是利益方众多,门门道道,弯弯绕绕。


众多老玩家历经风风雨雨,摸爬滚打,终于各自攒出了一身经验,足以自保。


新玩家们,进门无好礼相送,奉上一篇 “避坑指南”

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

一、前期开发篇


‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍1.选址用地


(1)集中式光伏——项目用地难


光伏项目开发炙手可热、企业“跑马圈地”来势汹汹。


2021年初至今,已有53家电站投资商签约了超过240GW的光伏项目,覆盖29个省市自治区。


如今,光伏宜建土地越发紧张,项目开发用地愈发受限。


2016年8月,福建省最大的光伏与农业综合开发项目——漳浦绿领农业科技大棚光伏电站,在持续建设了一年多以后,却遭到罚款并限期拆除。


2020年8月,内蒙古乌兰察布市对草原上在建运营的矿山、风电光伏等项目限期退出,拆除部分已建项目。


2021年7月,毛乌素沙漠边缘一个300MW的光伏项目,因涉及光伏土地性质问题遭到当地村民阻工,这项由榆林能源旗下公司投入16.52亿元建设的大项目,至今仍未能继续施工。

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

(榆能长兴公司300兆瓦光伏电站项目现场)

突然被叫停备案,甚至被拆除,原因无他, 就是踩了土地性质的“坑”。


避坑指南:


‍‍‍‍我国土地可以分为农用地、建设用地、未利用地三大类。下表根据国家现有的土地政策,对不同性质的土地是否可以用作光伏电站场址做了区分。其中,红色代表不能做场址,黄色代表部分可用、但有限定条件,绿色代表可用。

表 1:我国的土地性质分类

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南
2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南
2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

从上表可以看到,农业用地一般是禁止建设光伏项目的 ,一片红。


不过农用地也并非绝对不能碰。在“农光互补”的光伏开发模式出现后,国家为了予以支持,允许小部分“农业用地”通过农光互补的形式开展。


各省针对光伏复合项目(特别是农光、渔光项目)的最新政策规定 ,现总结如下:


①.光伏复合项目依旧不允许占用基本农田,涉林部分需遵循《国家林业局关于光伏电站建设使用林地有关问题的通知》。


②对于光伏阵列等设施架设在农用地上,在对土地不造成实际压占、不改变地表形态、不影响农业生产的前提下,可按原地类认定,不改变土地用途(含直埋电缆)。变电站及运营管理中心、集电线路杆塔基础设施用地,按建设用地管理,依法办理建设用地审批手续。


③一般规定:农光互补组件最低点距地不小于2.5米,桩基间距大于4米,行间距应大于6米;渔光互补组件最低点应高于最高水位0.6米;林光互补光伏支架不得低于所种植树木最高点1米以上。


(2)分布式光伏——屋顶落实难


地面光伏用地难,屋顶光伏想找到合适的屋顶也不容易,总结起来就是常常碰到以下三大坑:


一是房屋不合法坑


这个问题主要出现在户用光伏项目开发中,房屋本身就是违法、违建建筑,那么房屋被拆除,电站也将同样面临被拆除、禁用的风险,从而给投资方带来损失。


避坑指南:


投资企业在与屋顶所有人签署租赁合同之前,须要求房屋面所有人提供四证,包含:1)竣工验收证明、2)建筑工程规划许可证、3)消防验收证明、4)房屋产权证明。


同时,投资人须安排开发人员前往当地不动产登记部门对屋面所有人提供的房屋、土地等的产权进行尽职调查,确定房屋、土地是否存在抵押情况。并在屋面租赁协议或合同能源管理协议中增加因屋面所有人实行抵押权的赔偿条款。

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

二是租赁被迫中断坑。


租赁合同的最长期限为20年,而光伏项目有可能运营周期超出该20年期限。为使场地租赁期限覆盖项目存续期限,一般会签两份或者多份分合同,嵌套衔接,实现光伏电站25年的稳定收益。


但现实是,会出现一些屋主因为各种原因中断屋顶出租,拒绝续签合同,或以涨价为交换,造成投资方收益受损。


避坑指南:


明确在屋顶租赁合同中约定租赁周期为20年,并同时约定:租赁合同到期之后,双方对租赁合同以 补充协议形式续签5年,且价格不变


三是屋顶拆迁、易主坑。


2021年7月,新华财经报道了河北一个分布式光伏项目案例。项目投资6000万,投产一年,屋顶就被要求拆除,投资企业损失达亿元!


的确,随着城市的快速发展,我国建筑物的寿命正在缩短,工业厂房尤其容易成为被拆迁的对象。而房屋拆迁必然带来屋顶光伏电站的拆迁。


另外,要找一个稳定经营25年以上的企业也不容易。屋顶业主一旦倒闭,屋顶就面临易主的风险,而易主之后新的业主是否会接受屋顶光伏项目,不好把握.

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

避坑指南:


提前与屋面出租人进行约定对建筑物所有人自身经营不善造成的停产、停业损失及房屋面临征收时的停产停业造成的太阳能电站损失的计算依据及征收补偿的分配比例,以保护投资人的合法权益。


2.税费与租金


在多方确认土地或屋顶可以使用之后,还需要缴纳相关费用——土地税费和屋顶租金,而 费用缴纳远不是“一手交钱,一手交地”这么简单


(1)集中式光伏——税费复杂、租金上涨。


地面光伏电站涉及的主要税费有很多种:全国工业用地出让最低价、耕地占用税、草原植被恢复费、森林植被恢复费,城镇土地使用税、新增建设用地有偿使用费等等。其中,全国工业用地出让最低价、耕地占用税、草原植被恢复费和新增建设用地有偿使用费是一次性缴纳,城镇土地使用税是每年缴纳。


避坑指南:


各类税费具体收费标准如下:


城镇土地使用税

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

耕地占用税


耕地是指用于种植农作物的土地;占用林地、牧草地、农田水利用地、养殖水面以及渔业水域滩涂等其他农用地建房或者从事非农业建设的,比照本条例的规定征收耕地占用税。

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

全国工业用地出让最低价 光伏发电属工业项目,工业用地出让最低价标准为60元/平方米,即4万元/亩。


森林植被恢复费 宜林地每平米收取不低于3元的森林植被恢复费,灌木林地不低于6元,关于森林植被恢复费的实际征收标准,还要到当地林业主管部门和财政税务具体了解。


新增建设用地有偿使用费 国家根据新增建设用地所在地区,一共把新增建设用地土地等别划分为15等,具体征收标准从10元每平米至140元每平米不等,具体见下表:

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

除了繁杂的税费外,目前随着合适的光伏建设用地越来越少,用地价格一路飙升,项目用地成本在总投资中所占比重越来越大。企业往往会低估此项费用,甚至是大相径庭。而一旦出现这个问题,则会对企业的资金流动带来额外的压力。


避坑指南:


目前,我国西部省份的土地租金大部分在200-300元/亩/年左右,但中东部的租金价格正在逐步推高,湖北、湖南是今年备案比较火爆的地区,租金约为600元/亩/年左右。而更靠东部的省份,例如山东、江苏以及河北等部分地区,土地租金高达700-800元/亩/年,农光、渔光等复合项目用地的价格基本在1000-1500元/亩/年左右,也有个别地区项目用地成本已突破2000元/亩/年。

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

土地来之不易,建议企业在项目设计时,尽可能降低项目的占地大小,降低项目的投资成本;同时,当项目的土地面积确定时,可以通过缩小阵列间距,增加装机容量的方式提高项目的土地利用率。


(2)分布式光伏——屋顶涨价


物以稀为贵,随着屋顶资源的减少, 屋顶租金也水涨船高


2015年左右,我国分布式光伏项目还比较少,屋顶租金一般为2~3元/㎡;而时间来到2021年,屋顶租金已经上涨到8~10元/㎡,翻了3倍不止,还要叠加电费打折。


这种情况下,一些老项目的业主就会要求租金价格上涨。为了让业主不要涨价,开发商往往会维护好关系,逢年过节该请客请客,该送礼送礼。

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

但随着物价的变化,未来屋顶租金上涨大概率是免不了了。


实际上,租金上涨1~2元/㎡对项目的整体收益影响并不会太大,但是会对原有的财务模型和预期收益产生重大影响,而如果持续上涨更是让人头疼的事情。


避坑指南:


开发商在做财务模型的时候,最好 把屋顶租金设置成过2~3年上涨一次的模式


二、施工篇


光伏项目的施工过程虽然是由开发企业自行把控“大权”,受外界因素影响较小,但仍有几个方面存在“动态”风险,需要重视。


1、地方补贴获取风险


目前,虽然对光伏项目的国家补贴已经全部退场,但地方补贴在短时间内还未退出。光伏电站开发企业把握好时机,才能拿到丰厚补贴。


避坑指南:


第一时间获取地方政府关于补贴的实施细则,并与政府政策接口人就补贴范围及规模予以二次确认,特别是针对补贴政策存在设备采购限制要求的,需提前提交公司采购部以便指导设备采购计划,确保项目可享受到地方补贴。

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

2、电站指标风险


各省新建光伏项目的指标并非无所限制,也不是所有的光伏电站都能取到指标。


避坑指南:‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍


项目的实施及资金计划需紧密的结合电站指标的确认情况,项目实施之前,电站开发人员需与当地省发改委建立有效的信息获取机制, 了解项目省级备案规模及年度指标体量 。并随时了解同一批备案项目的实时进度,确保项目实施计划及实际进度符合项目取得指标的条件。


3、电力接入与消纳风险


有些生活在农村的朋友反映,家里屋顶很大,想装光伏结果村落里不让,这是为啥?这就是与当地的变压器容量有关。


每个村里的变压器都是有容量限制的,并网光伏也不是说无限量供应。


目前,虽然户用光伏接入容量低于变压器25%的规定已取消,但根据各地电压局的有关规定,最高安装容量不能超过变压器容量的100%,也就是说如果一个村子里有两台100千伏安的变压器,也就是200千伏安,那么这个村最多只能安装200千瓦的光伏电站。

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

因此,分布式光伏项目开发前必须排除电力接入风险,以免做无用功。


避坑指南:


项目前期开发工作中,开发人员与当地电网公司发展策划部积极沟通并收集资料,掌握当地电网供电现状与发展规划,明确当地电网及电力市场是否有足够用电容量可消纳项目发电量,当地已建成的太阳能发电项目是否有弃光的现象发生。


基于掌握了当地电网的情况后,建议 适当调整项目的超装规模,使项目的发电容量能被国家电网接纳、发电量能被当地电力市场消纳,降低限电弃光情况的发生。


三、后期运营篇


后期运营问题主要存在于分布式光伏项目中。毕竟光伏电站是装在人家的屋顶上,投资企业总是处于被动地位。


以下这些坑,常常让开发企业陷入“恨不得把电站拆了”却拆不了的尴尬境地。


1、欠电费坑


2020年,一则《被拖欠600万电费的背后:工商业分布式光伏的无奈和痛楚》在光伏人的朋友圈传遍,讲述了一家光伏企业倒霉遇上了拖欠电费的“老赖”,并被拖欠了600多万的“骇人”故事。


2020年2月,隆基新能源旗下的山东省曹县乐照光伏科技有限公司一纸状书将山东富洋工艺有限公司、山东省曹普工艺有限公司告上了法庭。据了解,乐照光伏被这两家累计拖欠电费超600万元,并被拒绝对相关光伏电站进行运营维护。

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

事实上,乐照光伏电费收取困难这一问题并非特例。


数家分布式光伏投资商表示:电费拖欠的情况并不是少数,80%都存在电费纠纷问题,这是影响分布式光伏收益最大的一个坑!


拖欠电费的问题为什么一直难以解决?有投资商愤慨表示:“一旦与业主企业对簿公堂,基本意味着这个项目要废掉了,后期运维都很难操作,人家把门一堵,就是不让你进,你有什么办法?”


的确是好大一个坑!


避坑指南:


投资人与用电方首先确认太阳能电站电表计量装置起始时间和起始读数,在合同能源管理协议中约定 以供电部门计量的起始时间和起始读数为参照


同时,为了避免在电站运营期内用电人与电站投资人产生冲突等原因而拒交或拖欠电费等情况的发生。 投资人须在项目实施前借助邓白氏等第三方评测机构充分调查用电人的财务状况和信用度 ,综合评估用电人拖欠电费的可能性,并在合同能源管理协议中明确约定拖欠电费的违约责任。


2、背锅坑


分布式光伏项目往往建设在并不具备专业知识的用户屋顶上,这就导致光伏在走向千家万户的同时,出现了很多极不专业性现象,以及大量常识性错误。

2022年做光伏,务必收下这份避坑指南

最常见的,有用户在屋顶光伏晒衣服、晒辣椒、晒萝卜干;有用户认为光伏电站有辐射,电站见得时候没意见,建成后一旦家里有人生病,甚至是动物生病,也会认为是光伏发电的电磁辐射造成的;还有用户在屋顶上装这装那,导致原本足够承载光伏板重量的屋顶荷载不够了,出现屋顶主梁变形的情况。最后都要光伏人来背锅!


‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍避坑指南:

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要实现“全民光伏”,必须同时进行“全民光伏科普”,否则“不专业”就是一个大坑。装光伏之前,有条件的情况下,对用户做一下简单的光伏运维知识的培训!

In 2021, the total market value of 15 photovoltaic listed companies exceeded 50billion yuan, of which 11 had a total market value of more than 100 billion yuan, and more than 100 enterprises entered the market across borders to compete in the new photovoltaic circuit.
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
Under the guidance of the double carbon target, the photovoltaic industry has ushered in a real explosion period. Photovoltaic has also become a "greedy" industry. Especially at the downstream power station, enterprises are most concentrated. Since 2020, 65 enterprises have successively laid out power station development business, each with its own emphasis.
It is a good thing for new and old players to actively layout PV and actively compete to promote the development of the industry. However, the photovoltaic industry can be regarded as one of the most complex industries. There are many interested parties at the development end of the downstream power station, and there are many twists and turns.
Many old players have gone through ups and downs, and finally accumulated their own experience, which is enough to protect themselves.
New players, no good gifts to send when entering the door, present a "pit avoidance guide".
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
1、 Preliminary development
Mr. Mr. 1 Site selection land
(1) Centralized photovoltaic - difficult land for the project
The development of photovoltaic projects is hot, and the "horse racing enclosure" of enterprises is threatening.
Since the beginning of 2021, 53 home appliance station investors have signed more than 240gw of photovoltaic projects, covering 29 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions.
Nowadays, the land suitable for photovoltaic construction is becoming more and more scarce, and the land for project development is becoming more and more restricted.
In August, 2016, Zhangpu Lvling agricultural science and technology greenhouse photovoltaic power station, the largest photovoltaic and agricultural comprehensive development project in Fujian Province, was fined and demolished within a time limit after continuous construction for more than a year.
In August, 2020, Wulanchabu, Inner Mongolia, withdrew from the mining, wind power and photovoltaic projects under construction and operation on the grassland within a time limit, and demolished some of the existing projects.
In July, 2021, a 300MW photovoltaic project at the edge of Maowusu Desert was blocked by local villagers due to the nature of photovoltaic land. This large project invested 1.652 billion yuan by Yulin Energy has not been continued.
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
(300 MW photovoltaic power station project site of Yuneng Changxing company)
It was suddenly stopped for filing or even removed for no other reason than stepping on the "pit" of the nature of the land.
Pit avoidance guidelines:
Our land can be divided into three categories: agricultural land, construction land and unused land. The following table distinguishes whether the land of different nature can be used as the site of photovoltaic power station according to the existing national land policy. Among them, red represents that the site cannot be used, yellow represents that some are available but with limited conditions, and green represents that it is available.
Table 1: classification of land properties in China
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
As can be seen from the above table, agricultural land is generally forbidden to build photovoltaic projects, which is very popular.
However, agricultural land is not absolutely untouchable. After the emergence of the photovoltaic development mode of "agricultural light complementation", the state allowed a small part of "agricultural land" to be carried out in the form of agricultural light complementation in order to support it.
The latest policies and regulations of each province for photovoltaic composite projects (especially agricultural and fishery light projects) are summarized as follows:
①  Photovoltaic composite projects are still not allowed to occupy basic farmland, and the forest related parts shall comply with the notice of the State Forestry Administration on issues related to the construction and use of forest land for photovoltaic power stations.
② For photovoltaic arrays and other facilities erected on agricultural land, on the premise of no actual occupation of the land, no change in surface morphology and no impact on agricultural production, they can be identified according to the original land type and no change in land use (including directly buried cables). The land for substation, operation management center and collection line tower infrastructure shall be managed as construction land, and the approval procedures for construction land shall be handled according to law.
③ General provisions: the lowest point of the agricultural optical complementary components shall be no less than 2.5m from the ground, the pile foundation spacing shall be more than 4m, and the row spacing shall be more than 6m; The lowest point of the fish light complementary component shall be 0.6m higher than the highest water level; The forest light complementary photovoltaic support shall not be less than 1 m below the highest point of the planted trees.
(2) Distributed photovoltaic - difficult to implement on the roof
It is difficult to use land for ground PV, and it is not easy to find a suitable roof for roof PV. To sum up, the following three pits are often encountered:
First, illegal housing.
This problem mainly occurs in the development of household photovoltaic projects. The house itself is an illegal building. If the house is demolished, the power station will also face the risk of being demolished and banned, thus causing losses to the investor.
Pit avoidance guidelines:
Before signing the lease contract with the roof owner, the investment enterprise must require the roof owner to provide four certificates, including: 1) completion acceptance certificate, 2) construction project planning license, 3) fire acceptance certificate and 4) house property right certificate.
Meanwhile, the investor shall arrange the developer to go to the local real estate registration department to conduct due diligence on the property rights of the houses and land provided by the roof owner to determine whether the houses and land are mortgaged. In addition, the compensation clause for the mortgage of the roof owner shall be added to the roof lease agreement or the contract energy management agreement.
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
Second, the lease was forced to be interrupted.
The maximum term of the lease contract is 20 years, and the PV project is likely to operate beyond this 20-year term. In order to make the lease term of the site cover the duration of the project, two or more sub contracts are generally signed, nested and connected, so as to realize the stable income of the photovoltaic power station for 25 years.
But the reality is that some homeowners will interrupt the roof rental for various reasons, refuse to renew the contract, or exchange the price increase, resulting in damage to the investor's income.
Pit avoidance guidelines:
It is clearly stipulated in the roof lease contract that the lease period is 20 years, and it is also agreed that after the expiration of the lease contract, both parties will renew the lease contract in the form of a supplementary agreement for 5 years, with the price unchanged.
The third is the roof demolition and changing of the main pit.
In July, 2021, Xinhua Finance reported a distributed photovoltaic project in Hebei. The investment of the project is 60million yuan. After one year of operation, the roof was required to be removed, and the loss of the investment enterprise reached billion yuan!
Indeed, with the rapid development of cities, the life of buildings in China is shortening, and industrial plants are particularly easy to be demolished. The house demolition will inevitably lead to the demolition of the roof photovoltaic power station.
In addition, it is not easy to find an enterprise that has operated stably for more than 25 years. Once the roof owner goes bankrupt, the roof will face the risk of changing ownership, and it is uncertain whether the new owner will accept the roof photovoltaic project after the change of ownership
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
Pit avoidance guidelines:
Make an agreement with the roof lessor in advance on the calculation basis and the distribution proportion of expropriation compensation for the losses caused by the shutdown and business suspension caused by the building owner's own poor management and the losses of solar power plants caused by the shutdown and business suspension when the house is subject to expropriation, so as to protect the legitimate rights and interests of investors.
2. taxes and rents
After many parties confirm that the land or roof can be used, they also need to pay relevant fees - land taxes and roof rents, and the payment of fees is far from being as simple as "paying money and land with one hand".
(1) Centralized photovoltaic - complex taxes and fees and rising rents.
There are many kinds of main taxes and fees involved in ground-based photovoltaic power stations: the national lowest price for industrial land transfer, cultivated land occupation tax, grassland vegetation restoration fee, forest vegetation restoration fee, urban land use tax, paid use fee for newly added construction land, etc. Among them, the national minimum price for industrial land transfer, cultivated land occupation tax, grassland vegetation restoration fee and paid use fee for new construction land are paid at one time, and the urban land use tax is paid every year.
Pit avoidance guidelines:
The specific charging standards of various taxes are as follows:
Urban land use tax
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
Cultivated land occupation tax
Cultivated land refers to the land used to grow crops; Land occupation tax shall be levied by applying mutatis mutandis the provisions of these regulations to those who occupy forest land, pasture land, farmland and water conservancy land, aquaculture water surface, fishery water area and tidal flats and other agricultural land for building houses or engaging in non-agricultural construction.
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
Photovoltaic power generation at the lowest price in the national industrial land transfer is an industrial project, and the lowest price standard for industrial land transfer is 60 yuan / square meter, that is, 40000 yuan / mu.
The forest vegetation restoration fee should be no less than 3 yuan per square meter of forest land and no less than 6 yuan per square meter of shrub land. The actual collection standard of forest vegetation restoration fee should be specifically understood by the local competent forestry department and the finance and taxation department.
The paid use fee for new construction land is divided into 15 grades according to the region where the new construction land is located. The specific collection standard ranges from 10 yuan per square meter to 140 yuan per square meter. See the following table for details:
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
In addition to complicated taxes and fees, at present, with less and less suitable photovoltaic construction land, the land price is soaring, and the project land cost accounts for an increasing proportion in the total investment. Enterprises tend to underestimate this cost, or even quite different. Once this problem occurs, it will bring additional pressure to the capital flow of enterprises.
Pit avoidance guidelines:
At present, most of the land rents in the western provinces of China are about 200-300 yuan / mu / year, but the rent prices in the Middle East are gradually pushing up. Hubei and Hunan are hot areas for filing this year, and the rent is about 600 yuan / mu / year. In the more eastern provinces, such as Shandong, Jiangsu and Hebei, the land rent is as high as 700-800 yuan / mu / year. The price of land for agricultural light, fishing light and other composite projects is basically about 1000-1500 yuan / mu / year. In some areas, the cost of land for projects has exceeded 2000 yuan / mu / year.
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
The land is hard won. It is suggested that the enterprise should reduce the land occupation and the investment cost of the project as much as possible during the project design; At the same time, when the land area of the project is determined, the land utilization rate of the project can be improved by reducing the array spacing and increasing the installed capacity.
(2) Distributed PV - roof price increase
With the reduction of roof resources, the rent of roof also rises.
Around 2015, there were few distributed photovoltaic projects in China, and the roof rent was generally 2~3 yuan / ㎡; When the time comes to 2021, the roof rent has risen to 8~10 yuan / ㎡, more than tripled, and there is also a discount on electricity charges.
In this case, the owners of some old projects will ask for a rise in rent prices. In order to keep the owners from raising prices, developers tend to maintain good relations. They should treat guests and give gifts during New Year holidays.
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
However, with the change of prices, it is inevitable that the roof rent will rise in the future.
In fact, the rent increase of 1~2 yuan / ㎡ will not have a great impact on the overall income of the project, but will have a significant impact on the original financial model and expected income. If the rent continues to rise, it will be a headache.
Pit avoidance guidelines:
When the developer makes the financial model, it is best to set the roof rent to rise once every 2~3 years.
2、 Construction
Although the construction process of photovoltaic project is controlled by the development enterprise itself, and is less affected by external factors, there are still "dynamic" risks in several aspects, which need to be paid attention to.
1. Local subsidy acquisition risk
At present, although all national subsidies for photovoltaic projects have been withdrawn, local subsidies have not been withdrawn in a short time. Photovoltaic power station development enterprises can get rich subsidies only when they grasp the opportunity.
Pit avoidance guidelines:
Obtain the detailed rules for the implementation of subsidies from the local government at the first time, and confirm the scope and scale of subsidies with the government policy contact person. In particular, if there are equipment procurement restrictions in the subsidy policy, it is necessary to submit it to the company's procurement department in advance to guide the equipment procurement plan and ensure that the project can enjoy local subsidies.
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
2. Index risk of power station
The indicators of new photovoltaic projects in each province are not unlimited, nor can all photovoltaic power stations get the indicators.
Escape Guide: Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr
The implementation and capital plan of the project shall be closely combined with the confirmation of the indicators of the power station. Before the implementation of the project, the developers of the power station shall establish an effective information acquisition mechanism with the local provincial development and Reform Commission to understand the provincial filing scale and annual indicator volume of the project. And keep abreast of the real-time progress of the same batch of registered projects to ensure that the project implementation plan and actual progress meet the conditions for the project to obtain indicators.
3. Power access and risk mitigation
Some friends who live in rural areas report that the roof of their home is very large. They want to install photovoltaic devices, but they won't let them in the village. Why? This is related to the local transformer capacity.
The transformers in each village are limited in capacity, and grid connected PV does not mean unlimited supply.
At present, although the regulation that the household PV access capacity is less than 25% of the transformer capacity has been cancelled, according to the relevant regulations of local voltage bureaus, the maximum installed capacity cannot exceed 100% of the transformer capacity, that is, if there are two 100 KVA transformers in a village, that is, 200 KVA, the village can only install 200 kW PV power stations at most.
Be sure to accept this pit avoidance guide for photovoltaic in 2022
Therefore, before the development of distributed photovoltaic projects, the risk of power access must be eliminated to avoid useless work.
Pit avoidance guidelines:
During the preliminary development of the project, the developers actively communicated with and collected data from the development planning department of the local power grid company, mastered the current power supply situation and development planning of the local power grid, and made clear whether the local power grid and the power market have enough power capacity to absorb the power generation of the project, and whether the solar power generation projects that have been built locally have lost light.
Based on the information of the local power grid, it is suggested to appropriately adjust the over installed scale of the project, so that the power generation capacity of the project can be accepted by the State Grid and the power generation capacity can be consumed by the local power market, so as to reduce the occurrence of power restriction and light abandonment.
3、 Later operation
The later operation problems mainly exist in distributed photovoltaic projects. After all, photovoltaic power stations are installed on the roofs of people, and investment enterprises are always in a passive position.
The following pits often make the development enterprises fall into the embarrassing situation of "wishing to dismantle the power station" but unable to dismantle it.
1. Electricity charge pit
In 2020, a piece of "behind the arrears of 6million electricity bills: the frustration and pain of industrial and commercial distributed photovoltaic" spread all over the circle of friends of photovoltaic people, telling a "shocking" story that a photovoltaic enterprise was unlucky to meet a "Lao Lai" who was in arrears of electricity bills and was in arrears of more than 6million.
In February, 2020, Shandong Caoxian lezhao Photovoltaic Technology Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of Longji new energy, issued a paper petition to Shandong Fuyang Technology Co., Ltd. and Shanshan

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