Refers to the carbon emission quota allocated by the competent department of carbon trading under The State Council to control and discharge enterprises within a specified period, which is the certificate and carrier of carbon emission right. One unit of emission quota is equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent.Quota distribution: mainly divided into free distribution and paid distribution.
Free distribution: benchmark method, historical method (historical intensity method, historical total method) paid distribution: auction, pricing sale
The National Development and Reform Commission will determine the total amount of regional quotas based on factors such as greenhouse gas emissions, economic growth, industrial structure, energy structure and the inclusion of emission control enterprises in each region, and reserve part of the quotas for paid distribution, market adjustment and major project construction. Local quotas will be mainly distributed free of charge in the initial stage, and paid distribution will be introduced in due time, and the proportion will be gradually increased.
The standard and method of free distribution shall be determined by the National Development and Reform Commission with reference to the opinions of relevant industry authorities. The difference between the total amount of local quotas and the quotas allocated free of charge may be used by local governments for compensated distribution. The specific method of compensated distribution shall be determined by local governments.
1. Historical aggregate method: Quota allocation is based on the past carbon emission data of enterprises.Generally, the annual average historical emissions of the enterprise are obtained by selecting the carbon emissions of the enterprise in the past 3-5 years, and this figure is the emission quota of the enterprise in the next year. The historical method requires relatively simple data and is easy to operate, so the free quota allocation of each pilot is mainly based on the historical emission or historical intensity method.
However, the historical method assumes that companies' carbon emissions will continue in the same way as in the past, which ignores two factors:
The first is the actions taken by companies to reduce emissions before the carbon market began
Second, after the start of the carbon market, enterprises may change their behaviors under the influence of the market mechanism to further reduce emissions
Therefore, the historical law may "whip the fast cow", which is not conducive to encouraging enterprises to develop and introduce energy-saving and emission reduction technologies in the future.
2. Historical intensity method:
Based on the historical carbon emissions of enterprises, the quota is multiplied by a number of adjustment factors, and factors such as early emission reduction incentive, emission reduction potential, encouragement of clean technology, and industry growth trend are taken into account, which can make up for the shortcomings of the historical method to a certain extent.
3. Base line method:
Based on the principle of "best practice", the carbon emission per unit product of the same product of different enterprises (facilities) is ranked from small to large, and the top 10% (not fixed, can also choose 30% or industry average) is chosen as the baseline.