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光伏发电:用“阳光存折” 为三亚添“绿”
返回列表 来源: 三亚日报 发布日期: 2021.01.31 浏览次数:

       三亚市育才生态区雅亮村四面环山,山下一公里开外,有着三亚市最大的水利枢纽工程大隆水库。虽然守着大隆水库,但由于雅亮村的耕地地处山区地带,加上水利措施不完善,缺水成了长期困扰村民生产生活的大问题。我们村都是靠天吃饭,庄稼种好了却没有水灌溉,差不多采摘的时候就死光了。水是农业生产的命脉,三亚全年日照时间长,蒸发量大,如果没有足量的水灌溉,许多农作物都不能很好生长。为缓解旱季缺水灌溉的问题,2017年,村民开始从大隆水库扬水至村里的扎吉水库,再由扎吉水库引入农田灌溉。每年扬水仅电费就7万多元,而村集体年收入不过3万元。我们驻村工作队刚进雅亮村的时候,就发现村里缺少生产灌溉用水,生活用水也比较缺。村里每年都会向区政府申请抗旱经费,村里的冬季瓜菜种植,每年仅电费就需要花6到7万元。利用传统的技术,需要投入大量经费兴修水利工程,占用土地,还要消耗电力抽水。那么,究竟有没有什么好办法既能解决用水难题,又能克服这些弊端呢?考虑到三亚拥有丰富的太阳能资源,2019年5月,育才生态区投资约360万元建设了太阳能光电控水灌溉项目,利用太阳能供水,通过管道将水引入农田,既节约水利投资,又可节约用地,节省人力。2019年8月,雅亮村的太阳能光电控水灌溉项目正式实现通水,日供水量约3000立方米。去年光伏发电引水灌溉刚好供应全村的冬季瓜菜,村里灌溉庄稼的水不缺了。如今走在雅亮村,一条约300米长的光伏板,让村子有了更多的生机,得益于太阳能光电控水灌溉项目的建成,雅亮村村民解决了生活和灌溉用水问题,受益耕地和坡地面积超2000亩,村民再也不用为缺水耕种而发愁。太阳能光电控水灌溉项目的建成解决了村民长年缺少生产灌溉用水的问题,提高了村民发展种植产业的积极性。

       近年来,三亚市大力弘扬生态文明理念和环保意识,提高光电等新能源和可再生能源利用率。2016年,三亚市政府常务会审议通过《三亚市太阳能分布式光伏发电项目管理暂行办法》,设立分布式光伏发电项目专项资金,鼓励全民积极参与低碳城市建设。就在雅亮村扬水的大隆水库,还有大隆水库干渠光伏电站,该电站总占地面积25万平方米,采用25740块360瓦型单晶硅PERC组件和2860块360瓦型单晶硅双面PERC组件,共设10个1兆瓦光伏子阵,容量达10兆瓦。电站平均每年可以向电网提供清洁电能1311万千瓦时,与燃煤电厂相比,以供电标煤煤耗每315克千瓦时计算,每年可节约标煤1.8万吨。这个电站每年可以减少多种大气污染物排放,其中减少二氧化硫排放量约347.6吨,氮氧化物197.5吨,还可减少一氧化碳、二氧化碳、灰渣排放量等,节能和环保效果显著。大隆水库干渠光伏电站利用大隆水库干渠上方的空间及所属地块建设光伏发电,特别设计了适合架设在干渠上方的光伏支架,采用单排布置和独立基础,既完全避免对干渠设施结构的破坏,降低了渠道蒸发量,又充分利用了干渠上方的空间,实现一地两用,提高了原有土地的使用效率,充分发挥土地效益,对土地综合利用与新能源产业结合发展起到良好的示范作用。

      利用水库干渠结合光伏的新型发电站形式,将有利于新能源与水利灌溉开发的互动、共融、优质发展,加快推进水库水利工程转型升级、农民增收、农村发展,促进当地经济发展,经济效益、社会效益及环境效益显著。除了利用水库干渠上方空间及所属地块建设光伏发电,在三亚崖州渔港屋顶光伏发电项目中,则利用了中心渔港生产配套区A座冷库和联排制储冰楼屋顶,规划建设并网型光伏发电项目。

     2017年1月,南网能源公司与三亚崖州港湾投资有限公司以合同能源管理模式签订了《三亚崖州中心渔港光伏发电项目屋面租赁合同》,开展光伏发电,屋面租赁面积共计14000平方米,选用320瓦单晶硅光伏组件,共安装4712块,装机容量达1507.840千瓦。本项目并网后,平均每年可发电168万千瓦时,25年的发电周期内可为三亚电网提供4222万千瓦时的清洁能源,增加了供电所供电的可靠性。三亚崖州渔港屋顶光伏发电项目属于分布式光伏发电,按照就近分散接入,就地平衡消纳的原则,采用全额上网运行模式。为企业提供了小容量分布式光伏发电并网的实践平台,为使用太阳能光电示范系统积累了经验和数据。不仅采用太阳能发电技术,安全环保无污染,并且不占土地进行光伏系统的安装,让宝贵的土地资源得到了重复有效的利用,推动社会节能减排,实现城市能源的可持续发展。它能实现减排二氧化碳3679吨,减排二氧化硫1110吨,减排氮氧化物553吨,减排碳粉尘36815吨,社会环境效益可观。
光伏发电还是三亚开展脱贫攻坚工作中,实现贫困户产业脱贫的一个重要举措。通过在屋顶安装光伏电池板发电,接受太阳光,把光能转化为电能,然后并网输送到电网。除了供应家庭使用,剩下的以一定的价格出售给南方电网。只要出太阳,家里就有收入。2018年海棠区打赢脱贫攻坚战中,海棠区南田居投入资金给有条件的贫困户建设光伏设备,通过建设的光伏设备并网发电,实现南田居19户脱贫户每年每户光伏发电收益约2000元。光伏发电项目,它具有长期的稳定收入低碳经济特性,一直以来是作为增加农民经济收益、农村扶贫、乡村振兴经济的重要项目之一,它在给老百姓带来经济收入的同时,也减少碳的排放,这就实现生态环境保护及经济效益双丰收,助力三亚低碳城市的建设。
         光伏发电,有效利用了太阳能取之不尽,用之不竭的特点,有清洁、安全等显著优势,是真正绿色环保的新型可再生资源。三亚积极利用光伏发电技术,建设光伏发电项目,平衡地球资源,极大地解决了资源浪费的问题,同时,减少了污染气体的排放,助力于绿色经济发展。

Yaliang Village in Yucai Ecological Zone of Sanya City is surrounded by mountains. One kilometer away from the mountain lies the Dalong Reservoir, the largest water conservancy project in Sanya City.Although guarding Dalong Reservoir, because Yaliang village's cultivated land is located in mountainous area, coupled with imperfect water conservancy measures, water shortage has long been a major problem troubling the villagers' production and life.Our village depends on the weather for food. The crops are planted, but there is no water to irrigate them. They die almost when they are picked.Water is the lifeblood of agricultural production. Sanya has long sunshine and large evaporation throughout the year. If there is no sufficient water irrigation, many crops cannot grow well. In 2017, villagers began pumping water from the Dalong Reservoir to the village's Zaji Reservoir, where it was diverted to irrigate fields, in order to alleviate the shortage of irrigation during the dry season. Every year water only electricity costs 70 thousand yuan, and the village collective annual income does not exceed 30 thousand yuan.When our village team first entered Yaliang village, we found that the village was short of irrigation water for production and domestic use. The village will apply for drought relief funds to the district government every year. The winter melon and vegetable planting in the village will cost 60,000 to 70,000 yuan for electricity only. Using traditional technology requires a lot of money to build water projects, occupy land, and consume electricity to pump water.So, is there any good way to solve the water problem and overcome these disadvantages? Considering that Sanya is rich in solar energy resources, Yucai Ecological Zone invested about 3.6 million yuan to build a solar photoelectric controlled water irrigation project in May 2019. The project uses solar energy to supply water and introduces water into farmland through pipes, which not only saves water investment, but also saves land use and manpower.In August 2019, the solar photoelectric controlled water irrigation project in Yaliang Village officially realized water supply, with a daily water supply of about 3,000 cubic meters. Last year photovoltaic power diversion irrigation just supply the whole village winter melon vegetables, the village irrigation crops of water is not short of. Today, walking in Yaliang Village, a 300-meter-long photovoltaic panel has brought more vitality to the village. Thanks to the completion of the solar photoelectric controlled water irrigation project, villagers in Yaliang Village have solved the problem of living and irrigation water, benefiting over 2,000 mu of cultivated land and sloping land, and villagers no longer have to worry about farming without water. The completion of the solar photoelectric controlled water irrigation project has solved the problem of the villagers' perennial lack of irrigation water for production and increased the enthusiasm of the villagers to develop the planting industry.

In recent years, Sanya has vigorously promoted the concept of ecological civilization and environmental awareness, and improved the utilization rate of new and renewable energy such as photoelectricity. In 2016, the executive meeting of Sanya Municipal Government deliberated and approved the Interim Measures for the Management of Solar Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation Projects in Sanya City, and set up special funds for distributed photovoltaic power generation projects to encourage the public to actively participate in the construction of low-carbon cities.Yaliang village in the Dalong reservoir, and Dalong reservoir main channel photovoltaic power station, the power station covers a total area of 250,000 square meters, using 25740 360 watt type monocratic silicon PERC components and 2860 360 watt type monocratic silicon double-sided PERC components, a total of 10 1 MW photovoltaic sub-array, capacity of 10 MW. The power station can provide 13.11 million kilowatt-hours of clean electric energy to the power grid on average every year. Compared with coal-fired power plants, the annual saving of 18,000 tons of standard coal can be calculated based on the coal consumption of 315 grams of standard coal for power supply.The power station can reduce the emission of a variety of air pollutants every year, including sulfur dioxide emission of about 347.6 tons, nitrogen oxides of 197.5 tons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ash emissions, etc., and the effect of energy saving and environmental protection is remarkable. Dalong reservoir main canal photovoltaic power station using dalong reservoir space above the main canal and the plot construction of photovoltaic power generation, especially designed for the erection of the photovoltaic bracket on the top of the main canal, adopts single row layout and independent foundation, already completely avoid damage to the structure of the main facilities, reduce the channel capacity, and make full use of the space above the main canal, realize a dual-use, improve the efficiency of the original land use, give full play to the benefit of land, the land utilization and combining with the development of new energy industry play a good demonstration effect.

The new form of power station combining photovoltaic with reservoir trunk canal will be conducive to the interaction, co-integration and high-quality development of new energy and water conservancy and irrigation development, accelerate the transformation and upgrading of reservoir water conservancy project, increase farmers' income and rural development, promote the local economic development, with significant economic, social and environmental benefits. In addition to using the space above the main channel of the reservoir and the land to build photovoltaic power generation, in the rooftop photovoltaic power generation project of Sanya Yazhou Fishery Port, the grid connected photovoltaic power generation project is planned and constructed by using the roof of Block A cold storage and row storage ice building in the supporting area of the central fishing port.

In January 2017, the south cliff state energy company, and sanya bay investment co., LTD to sign the contract energy management mode of the photovoltaic power generation project roofing sanya cliff state center fishing port leasing contract, in photovoltaic power generation, roofing leasing area of 14000 square meters, choose 320 watts of monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules, install 4712 block, the installed capacity of 1507.840 kw. After the project is connected to the grid, it can generate 1.68 million kilowatt-hours of electricity on average every year, and provide 42.22 million kilowatt-hours of clean energy to Sanya power grid in a 25-year generation cycle, which increases the reliability of the power supply station.The rooftop photovoltaic power generation project of Sanya Yazhou Fishing Port belongs to distributed photovoltaic power generation. According to the principle of decentralized access nearby and balanced consumption on site, the operation mode of full amount online is adopted. It provides a practical platform for enterprises to connect small capacity distributed photovoltaic power generation to the grid, and accumulates experience and data for the use of solar photovoltaic demonstration system. It not only adopts solar power generation technology, which is safe, environment-friendly and pollution-free, but also does not occupy land for the installation of photovoltaic system, so that the valuable land resources are repeatedly and effectively utilized, promoting social energy conservation and emission reduction, and realizing the sustainable development of urban energy. It can reduce carbon dioxide by 3679 tons, sulfur dioxide by 1110 tons, nitrogen oxide by 553 tons and carbon dust by 36,815 tons, with considerable social and environmental benefits.

Photovoltaic power generation is also an important measure to realize poverty alleviation in Sanya's poverty alleviation work.They generate electricity by installing photovoltaic panels on the roof, which receive sunlight and convert it into electricity, which is then fed to the grid. In addition to supplying household use, the rest is sold to China Southern Power Grid at a certain price.As long as the sun shines, the family has an income. In 2018, Haitang District won the battle of poverty alleviation, Haitang District Nantianju invested funds to build photovoltaic equipment for eligible poor households, through the construction of photovoltaic equipment connected to the grid, to achieve 19 households out of poverty in Nantianju photovoltaic income of about 2,000 yuan per household every year.Photovoltaic power generation project, it has a long-term stable income low carbon economy features, has been as economic increase farmers income, rural poverty reduction, rural economic development of one of the important project, it's on to bring economic income to the people at the same time, also to reduce carbon emissions, which is to achieve the ecological environment protection and economic efficiency double abundant harvest, help sanya low-carbon construction of city.

Photovoltaic power generation, the effective use of solar energy inexhaustible, inexhaustible characteristics, clean, safe and other significant advantages, is a real green environmental protection of the new renewable resources. Sanya actively uses photovoltaic power generation technology and builds photovoltaic power generation projects to balance the earth's resources, which greatly solves the problem of resource waste and reduces the emission of polluting gases, contributing to the development of green economy.


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