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两会“碳达峰,碳中和”概念:千亿“光伏一哥”隆基股份有何高见?
返回列表 来源: 中国经营报 发布日期: 2021.03.27 浏览次数:

       碳中和时代渐行渐近。2020年9月,中国向国际社会明确了碳中和的目标和时间表:二氧化碳排放力争于2030年前达到峰值,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和。此后,2020年国家将“做好碳达峰、碳中和工作”确定为2021年八大重点任务之一。如今,“碳中和”这个原本陌生的词汇,成为各行各业的热议焦点。早在两年前,公司总部位于西安的一家新能源企业就提出了类似的发展理念——“Solar for Solar-负碳地球”,并成功实践。
       这家企业就是全球光伏领先企业隆基股份(601012.SH),其“掌舵者”李振国认为,一旦光伏能源足够便宜,其本身的生产环节可以实现完全零碳制造,当产业链全生产过程都使用清洁能源,过程中便会是零碳足迹。由此,隆基股份率先垂范,成为零碳制造的先行者和践行者。“用清洁能源制造清洁能源”“水电的巨大调节能力由于电力体制的原因尚未得到充分利用。国内有全世界最大的水电装机容量,水电满负荷运行时间不到全年一半,可灵活调节出力,可与新能源互补发电,利用水光风互补可以加快国内可再生能源发展进程”。今年两会,李振国提出实现多能互补助力碳中和的呼吁再次被媒体聚焦。从零碳制造到多能互补,李振国的呼声源于2016年隆基股份做了一个决定:投资云南。而这里也是隆基股份零碳制造且成功实践的开端。云南是清洁能源大省,水电资源丰富。但该省也面临着消纳能力有限的问题,尤其丰水期,“弃水弃电”现象严重。在隆基股份看来,投资云南将“弃水弃电”化废为宝,既消纳了当地富裕的水电,又解决了当地的历史难题,同时也可以利用比煤电更廉价的水电降低制造成本,从而带动光伏发电成本下降。
        据悉,过去5年,隆基股份在云南保山一、二期20GW单晶硅棒项目和保山三期腾冲年产10GW单晶硅棒项目、丽江一、二期20GW单晶硅棒项目、曲靖一期年产10GW单晶硅棒和切片项目、楚雄一、二期30GW、三期20GW单晶硅切片项目均已投产,且陆续还有新产能投入。
2020年,隆基股份在云南累计完成投资已经远超200亿元,带动当地约1.7万人就业。值得一提的是,随着隆基股份落地云南,还吸引了晶澳科技、锦州阳光、晶科能源和通威股份等多家企业纷纷挺进云南,并带动当地水电硅一体化产业崛起。据清华大学研究,光伏等新能源产业能拉动的新增就业岗位是传统能源的1.5-3倍,可为传统能源产业转型提供充足的、更高质量、更体面的就业岗位。云南当地算了一笔账,隆基股份每年可消纳云南清洁水电12.81亿度,极大缓解了云南能源弃水的消纳问题,每消耗1度水电制造的光伏产品,其生命周期可生产50多度光伏电送往全球市场,成为“清洁能源的搬运工和放大器”。
      在大规模进驻云南期间,隆基股份“用清洁能源制造清洁能源”的生产制造理念也由此诞生,并在马来西亚工厂进一步推广应用。目前,隆基股份位于云南的工厂及马来西亚的工厂,几乎实现了100%可再生能源电力生产。 2018年12月11日,在第24届联合国气候大会上,李振国先于全行业提出了“Solar for Solar-负碳地球”的生产制造理念,希望未来在全球更多的地区使用光伏发电制造光伏产品,实现完全清洁零碳生产。
“在迈向碳中和的阶段,非化石能源发电量占比将达到90%-100%,可通过多种储能、可再生能源制氢、需求侧响应。”今年两会期间,李振国表示目前国内光伏和风电发电量之和占比约10%,新能源消纳空间还很大,建议国家扶持储能产业加快发展,支持“可再生能源+储能”扩大应用,争取使储能产业取得更大的技术进步和成本降低,比如大力支持抽水蓄能项目的建设,支持常规水电改造增加抽水蓄能功能,实现清洁能源的更高比例应用。实现碳中和的核心是控制碳排放。当前,我国能源燃烧是二氧化碳排放的第一大来源,能源供给仍以煤炭消费为主(煤炭消费占比最高的为煤电)。由此,加快我国能源结构由化石能源(煤炭为主)向非化石能源(风能、光伏为主的可再生能源等)的转型迫在眉睫。
        目前,我国已经具备能源转型的一定条件,而这一定程度上也是我国提出碳中和目标的底气。其中,我国光伏发电和风电累计装机保持全球第一,制造装备国产化水平高,产业链齐全。尤其是,其发电成本持续下降,2021年基本摆脱补贴,经济性可以与煤电竞技。以光伏行业为例,过去十多年,整个行业都在做同一件事——降本,即让光伏足够便宜。成立于2000年的隆基股份,目前已在全球光伏单晶硅片和组件龙头,除了硅料之外在整个光伏产业链环节均有布局。隆基股份的发展速度惊人。从2012年上市至2020年,隆基股份归属于母公司所有者的净利润从亏损0.53亿元暴涨至82亿元以上,上市9年翻80余倍;市值从上市当年期末不足40亿元,而今一度突破4500亿元,翻了百余倍。在资本市场上,隆基股份还于2020年12月受到了高瓴资本158亿元加持。隆基股份的迅速崛起与金刚线切割技术和PERC电池技术相关。
       2013年左右,隆基股份率先引入金刚线切割技术替代砂浆切割技术,推动了设备与金刚石切割的国产化替代,使得切片环节成本快速下降,效率大幅提升,并引领行业进入“金刚线时代”。叠加隆基股份2014年切入光伏组件领域,又将PERC电池技术在单晶产业链上的成功引入与推广,从此打开了单晶组件快速效率提升与成本下降的局面,隆基股份主导的单晶市场逐渐占据有利地位。有数据显示,金刚线切割技术的革新能带动单晶硅片非硅成本较砂浆切割下降60%以上,每年为行业节约成本约300亿元。在业内看来,隆基股份不仅成就了自己,而且推动了整个光伏产业的成本下降。“目前许多国家和地区已经实现一毛钱一度电,当之无愧成为了最便宜、最清洁的电力资源。从长期看,光伏发电成本还将持续降低,度电成本将全面降至几分钱/度。”今年两会期间,李振国在接受媒体采访时表示,如今,国内光伏发电主要面临非技术成本较高的问题,包括贷款利息、土地税费及其他各项税费等。他建议全面降低光伏发电的非技术成本,让渡出经济空间,通过政策引导鼓励储能、氢能、电力调峰与电网调节,实现多能互补综合发展,推动非化石能源比例更为快速地提升,助力“碳中和”目标早日实现。
Solar for Solar-负碳地球,这是隆基股份的一个梦想,更是一种信仰。2020年3月,隆基股份正式加入了“RE100”倡议,并承诺到2028年将在全球生产及运营中实现100%使用可再生电力。目前全世界有超200家全球大型跨国公司、科技企业、金融机构等都响应了倡议并做出了承诺,其中有些已经实现了目标。截至目前,中国不足10家企业加入了RE100倡议。
     对于为何加入RE100?李振国表示,“因为我们和国际气候组织及所有RE100的成员方企业们拥有同样的初衷和梦想——建立一个完全使用清洁能源供能的美好世界,彻底解决全球气候变暖问题。隆基也希望通过自身的探索为更多的企业提供可参照的目标。”8个月后,隆基股份又宣布加入气候组织“EV100”和“EP100”倡议。隆基股份加入EV100,承诺在未来十年内,安装充足的电动车充电设施,引导员工将家庭用车转换为电动汽车。同时,加入EP100,承诺在2025年前完成能源管理系统的部署,并以2015年为基准年,提高35%能源使用效率。完成三个“100”目标充满了挑战性。不过,李振国说:“气候变暖是另一场‘战役’,需要强有力的举措加以遏制。”实现 碳达峰碳中和,不是单一企业行为,头部企业有义务推动供应链减碳乃至去碳。
       事实上,处于快速发展阶段的隆基股份,在2018年新增的供应商就多达750家,90%的供应商分布在中国。彼时,隆基就在供应商大会上倡导与上下游共同实践环境保护、节能减排的绿色理念,共同促进绿色供应链建设。2021年1月,隆基股份率先发布《绿色供应链减碳倡议》,将绿色理念融入供应链管理体系,协同价值链上的供应商,对产品的绿色属性进行有效管理,减少其制造、运输、储存以及使用等过程的能源资源消耗和污染物排放。隆基股份也成为光伏行业首个提出“供应链减碳”的企业。目前,已有150余家供应商响应。


The era of carbon neutrality is approaching.In September 2020, China made clear to the international community the goal and timetable of carbon neutrality: carbon dioxide emissions will peak by 2030, and strive to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.Since then, the country has identified "doing a good job in achieving carbon peak and carbon neutrality" as one of the eight key tasks in 2021.Now, "carbon neutral", an unfamiliar term, has become a hot topic in all walks of life. As early as two years ago, a new energy enterprise headquartered in Xi 'an proposed a similar development concept -- "Solar for Solar- Carbon-Negative Earth" -- and successfully implemented it.

Li Zhenguo, the "pilot" of Longi (601012.SH), a leading global photovoltaic company, believes that once photovoltaic energy is cheap enough, its production link can achieve complete zero-carbon manufacturing, and when the whole production process of the industrial chain uses clean energy, the process will have a zero carbon footprint. Therefore, Longji takes the lead in setting an example and becomes a pioneer and practitioner of zero-carbon manufacturing."Clean Energy from Clean Energy." "Hydropower has a huge regulatory capacity that has not been fully utilized because of the power system. China has the largest installed hydropower capacity in the world, and the full load operation time of hydropower is less than half of the year. The output can be adjusted flexibly, and it can complement with new energy to generate electricity. The use of water, light and wind to complement each other can speed up the development process of domestic renewable energy ".At this year's two sessions, Li Zhenguo's call to achieve multi-energy complementarity to contribute to carbon neutrality was once again highlighted by the media. From zero-carbon manufacturing to multi-energy complementarization, Li ZhenGuo's call stems from Longji's decision to invest in Yunnan in 2016.This is also the beginning of Longi's successful zero-carbon manufacturing practice. Yunnan is a clean energy province, rich in hydropower resources. However, the province also faces the problem of limited absorption capacity, especially in the flood season, the phenomenon of "abandoning water and electricity" is serious. In the view of Longi Group, the investment in Yunnan will turn waste water and electricity into wealth, which will not only absorb the rich local hydropower, but also solve the local historical problems. At the same time, it can also reduce the manufacturing cost by using hydropower, which is cheaper than coal power, so as to drive down the cost of photovoltaic power generation.

It is understood that in the past five years, longji stake in yunnan baoshan 20 gw monocrystalline silicon rods of phase I and ii project and the three periods of baoshan tengchong of 10 gw monocrystalline silicon rods project, lijiang, 20 gw monocrystalline silicon rod project phase ii, a period of 10 gw qujing monocrystalline silicon rods and sliced project, chuxiong 30 gw of phase I and ii, iii 20 gw monocrystalline silicon slicing projects have been put into production, and established and new capacity investment.

In 2020, the cumulative investment of Longji Group in Yunnan has exceeded 20 billion yuan, bringing about 17,000 local jobs.It is worth mentioning that, with the arrival of Longi shares in Yunnan, many enterprises such as JA Technology, Jinzhou Sunshine, JinkoSolar and Tongwei shares have entered Yunnan one after another, and promoted the rise of local hydropower and silicon integration industry. According to research by Tsinghua University, photovoltaic and other new energy industries can drive 1.5 to 3 times as many new jobs as traditional energy, which can provide sufficient, higher quality and more decent jobs for the transformation of traditional energy industries.According to a local calculation in Yunnan, Longji can consume 1.281 billion KWH of clean hydropower in Yunnan every year, greatly alleviating the problem of waste water consumption in Yunnan energy. The photovoltaic products made by consuming 1 KWH of hydropower can produce more than 50 KWH of photovoltaic power in their life cycle and send it to the global market, becoming "the transport and amplifier of clean energy".

During its large-scale presence in Yunnan, Longi's manufacturing concept of "Clean Energy with Clean Energy" was born and further promoted in the Malaysian factory. Currently, Longi's plants in Yunnan and Malaysia are generating almost 100% renewable power.On December 11, 2018, at the 24th United Nations Climate Conference, Li Zhenguo proposed the manufacturing concept of "Solar for Solar- Carbon Negative Earth" ahead of the whole industry. He hoped that more regions around the world would use photovoltaic power generation to make photovoltaic products in the future, and achieve completely clean and zero-carbon production.

"In the phase towards carbon neutrality, non-fossil energy will account for 90% to 100% of electricity generation, through a variety of energy storage, renewable energy hydrogen production, and demand side response." During the two sessions this year, Daniel li said the current domestic photovoltaic (pv) and wind power accounted for about 10% of the sum of the energy, new energy given the space also is very big, to speed up the development, suggested the state supports energy storage industry support "renewable energy and energy storage" expand the application, for the technology of energy storage industry to make greater progress and cost reduction, such as support for the construction of pumped storage project, support routine water and electricity transformation increase pumped storage function, achieve the higher proportion of application of clean energy.The core of achieving carbon neutrality is to control carbon emissions. At present, China's energy combustion is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions, and the energy supply is still dominated by coal consumption (the highest proportion of coal consumption is coal power). Therefore, it is extremely urgent to accelerate the transformation of China's energy structure from fossil energy (mainly coal) to non-fossil energy (mainly wind energy, photovoltaic renewable energy, etc.).

At present, China has certain conditions for energy transition, which to some extent is also the basis for China to put forward the carbon neutral target. Among them, China's cumulative installed capacity of photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation remains the first in the world, with a high level of localization of manufacturing equipment and a complete industrial chain. In particular, its power generation costs continue to decline, and it will basically get rid of subsidies in 2021, and its economy can compete with coal power. Take the photovoltaic industry for example. For more than a decade, the entire industry has been doing the same thing -- reducing costs -- making photovoltaic cheap enough. Founded in 2000, Longi is now a global leader in PV monocrystalline silicon wafers and modules, with a presence in the entire PV industry chain in addition to silicon materials. Longji shares of the development of astonishing speed. From its listing in 2012 to 2020, the net profit attributable to the parent company owner of Longji shares soared from a loss of 53 million yuan to more than 8.2 billion yuan, which increased by more than 80 times in the 9 years since its listing.The market capitalization from the end of the year listed less than 4 billion yuan, now once exceeded 450 billion yuan, more than 100 times. In the capital market, Longji shares also received 15.8 billion yuan from Hillhouse Capital in December 2020.Longji shares of the rapid rise of diamond wire cutting technology and PERC battery technology.

In 2013 or so, Longji took the lead in introducing diamond wire cutting technology to replace mortar cutting technology, promoting the replacement of equipment and diamond cutting, making the cost of the slicing link drop rapidly, improving the efficiency greatly, and leading the industry into the "era of diamond line". Stacked Longki shares in 2014 into the field of photovoltaic modules, and the successful introduction and promotion of PERC battery technology in the single crystal industry chain, from now on opened the situation of rapid efficiency improvement and cost reduction of single crystal components, Longki shares dominated single crystal market gradually occupy a favorable position.Data show that the innovation of diamond wire cutting technology can drive the non-silicon cost of monocrystal silicon wafer to reduce by more than 60% compared with mortar cutting, saving about 30 billion yuan for the industry every year. In the view of the industry, Longji shares not only achievements themselves, but also to promote the cost reduction of the entire photovoltaic industry. "At present, many countries and regions have achieved electricity for 10 cents per hour, making it the cheapest and cleanest source of electricity. In the long term, the cost of photovoltaic power generation will continue to reduce, and the cost per kilowatt-hour will be reduced to a few cents per kilowatt-hour." During this year's two sessions, Li Zhenguo said in an interview with the media, now, domestic photovoltaic power generation mainly faces the problem of high non-technical costs, including loan interest, land taxes and other taxes and fees. He suggested that the non-technical cost of photovoltaic power generation should be comprehensively reduced to make room for economic space, and that energy storage, hydrogen energy, power peak regulation and grid regulation should be encouraged through policy guidance, so as to realize the complementary and comprehensive development of multi-energy, promote a faster increase in the proportion of non-fossil energy, and help achieve the goal of "carbon neutrality" as soon as possible.

Solar for Solar- negative carbon earth, this is a dream of longji shares, but also a belief.In March 2020, Longi officially joined the "RE100" initiative and pledged to use 100% renewable electricity in its global production and operations by 2028. More than 200 of the world's largest multinational corporations, technology companies, financial institutions and others have responded to the initiative and made commitments, and some have met their goals. So far, fewer than 10 Chinese companies have joined the RE100 initiative.

Why join RE100?"Because we share the same original intention and dream with the international climate organization and all RE100 member companies -- to build a better world powered entirely by clean energy and solve the problem of global warming once and for all. Longi also hopes to provide more enterprises with referable goals through its own exploration."Eight months later, Longi announced that it had joined the EV100 and EP100 initiatives of climate organizations. Longi has joined the EV100 with a commitment to install sufficient EV charging facilities within the next decade to guide employees to convert their family cars to electric vehicles. At the same time, joining EP100 commits to complete the deployment of the energy management system by 2025, and to improve energy efficiency by 35% by 2015 as the base year. Achieving three "100" goals can be challenging. However, Li said: "Climate change is another 'battle' that needs strong measures to curb it." To achieve carbon peak and carbon neutral is not a single enterprise behavior. The leading enterprises have the obligation to promote carbon reduction and even decarbonization in the supply chain.

In fact, Longi, which is in the stage of rapid development, added 750 new suppliers in 2018, 90% of which are located in China.At that time, Longi advocated to practice the green concept of environmental protection, energy conservation and emission reduction together with the upstream and downstream at the supplier conference, and jointly promoted the construction of green supply chain. In January 2021, Longi took the lead in releasing the "Green Supply Chain Carbon Reduction Initiative", integrating green concept into supply chain management system, cooperating with suppliers in the value chain, effectively managing the green attribute of products, and reducing energy and resource consumption and pollutant emission in the process of manufacturing, transportation, storage and use.Longji also became the first photovoltaic industry to put forward the "supply chain carbon reduction" enterprises. So far, more than 150 suppliers have responded.








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