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一兆瓦光伏电站,可得近百万的碳排放交易收益
返回列表 来源: 发布日期: 2021.05.30 浏览次数:

      5月17日,生态环境部发布《碳排放权登记管理规则(试行)》《碳排放权交易管理规则(试行)》和《碳排放权结算管理规则(试行)》,并于即日起执行。 《碳排放权交易管理规则(试行)》提到, 碳排放配额交易以“每吨二氧化碳当量价格”为计价单位,买卖申报量的最小变动计量为1吨二氧化碳当量 ,申报价格的最小变动计量为0.01元人民币。交易机构实行涨跌幅限制制度。交易机构应当设定不同交易方式的涨跌幅比例,并可以根据市场风险状况对涨跌幅比例进行调整。这标志着全国碳排放权交易工作又向前迈出了一大步!

       

       首先咱们要搞清楚一个问题,为什么实施碳排放交易就会利好光伏电站?

        我们知道,工商业光伏电站5年左右可以收回投资成本。国家碳排放配额交易的开启,让拥有光伏电站的用户或投资者得到了天上掉下的馅饼。 根据中国资源综合利用协会可再生能源专业委员会和国际环保组织绿色和平发布的《中国光伏产业清洁生产研究报告》,光伏发电的能量回收周期仅为1.3年,而其使用寿命为25年,也就是说在约24年里光伏发电都是零碳排放 。根据测算,光伏发电的二氧化碳排放为33-50克/度,而煤电为796.7克/度。光伏发电的二氧化碳排放量只是化石能源的十分之一到二十分之一,所以光伏发电在降低碳排放方面拥有压倒性的优势。

       

根据文中第31条【抵消机制】来看,可再生能源开发的CCER(国家核证自愿减排量)可以用来抵消5%的经核查排放量。


根据光伏项目开发CCER的经验来看,100MW的光伏项目每年可以开发出11万吨CCER,全生命周期内最多可以开发21年,全生命周期内最多可以开发出231万吨CCER。根据当前北京CCER成交价20元/吨计算,100MW的光伏电站通过碳交易可以额外增加4620万的收益,相当于1.5年的发电量收益,也相当于每度电可额外收益2.3分。这部分收益可以有效降低7%左右的LCOE(按年利用小时数1000小时,上网电价0.3元/kWh测算),可保障全国光伏电站实现平价上网,甚至低价上网,其经济效益和环境效益显著。

      

       On May 17, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment issued the "Carbon Emission Rights Registration Management Rules (Trial)", "Carbon Emission Rights Trading Management Rules (Trial)" and "Carbon Emission Rights Settlement Management Rules (Trial)", which will be implemented immediately. According to the Regulations on the Administration of Carbon Emission Trading (Trial), carbon emission quota trading takes the "price of carbon dioxide equivalent per ton" as the unit of pricing, and the minimum change in the declared volume is measured as 1 ton of carbon dioxide equivalent, and the minimum change in the declared price is measured as 0.01 yuan.Trading institutions to implement the rise and fall limit system. A trading institution shall set the proportion of the rise and fall of different trading methods, and may adjust the proportion of the rise and fall according to the market risk situation. This marks the national carbon emission right trading work and a big step forward!

First of all, we need to figure out a question, why the implementation of carbon emissions trading will benefit photovoltaic power stations?

We know that industrial and commercial photovoltaic power stations can pay back their investment costs in about 5 years.With the opening of national carbon emission quota trading, users or investors who own photovoltaic power stations get a pie from the sky. According to the "Clean Production Research Report on China's Photovoltaic Industry" released by the Renewable Energy Committee of the China Association of Comprehensive Utilization of Resources and the international environmental organization Greenpeace, the energy recovery cycle of photovoltaic power generation is only 1.3 years, while its service life is 25 years, which means that photovoltaic power generation will have zero carbon emissions for about 24 years.According to the calculation, the carbon dioxide emission of photovoltaic power generation is 33-50 grams/kWh, while that of coal power generation is 796.7 grams/kWh.With carbon dioxide emissions only one-tenth to one-twentieth of those of fossil fuels, photovoltaic power has an overwhelming advantage in reducing carbon emissions.

According to article 31 [offsetting mechanism], CCER (Nationally Certified Voluntary Emissions Reduction) for renewable energy development can be used to offset 5% of verified emissions.

According to our experience in developing CCERs for PV projects, a 100MW PV project can develop 110,000 tons of CCERs per year, with a maximum of 21 years of development during its full life cycle, and a maximum of 2.31 million tons of CCERs during its full life cycle. According to the current CCER transaction price of 20 yuan/ton in Beijing, a 100MW photovoltaic power station can gain an additional income of 46.2 million yuan through carbon trading, which is equivalent to 1.5 years' generating income and 2.3 cents per kilowatt-hour.This part of revenue can effectively reduce the LCOE by about 7% (based on the annual utilization hours of 1000 hours, the on-grid electricity price is 0.3 yuan /kWh), which can ensure the photovoltaic power stations across the country to achieve affordable or even low-cost access to the Internet, with significant economic and environmental benefits.



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