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中国分布式光伏发电100问答
返回列表 来源: 晶成新能源 发布日期: 2021.01.31 浏览次数:

《中国分布式光伏发电 100问答》由可再生能源学会光电专业委员会编制,为方便广大光伏微友的阅读,本站小编整理了文字版。

本文是网络可见的最完整的版本,欢迎大家转发收藏!

原理及意义篇

1.什么是光伏发电?什么是分布式光伏发电?

光伏发电是指利用太阳能辐射直接转变成电能的发电方式,光伏发电是当今太阳能发电的主流,所以,现在人们常说的太阳能发电就是光伏发电。

分布式发电是指在用户场地附近建设,运行方式以用户侧自发自用为主,多余电量上网,但在配电系统平衡调节为特性的光伏发电设施。

分布式发电遵循因地制宜、清洁高效、分散布局、就近利用的原测,充分利用当地的太阳能资源,替代和减少化石能源消费。

2.您知道光伏发电的历史起源吗?

1839 年,19 岁的法国贝克勒尔做物理实验时,发现在导电液中的两种金属电极用光照射时电流会加强,从而发现了“光生伏打效应”。1930 年,郞格首次提出用“光伏效应”制造太阳能电池,使太阳能变成电能。

1932 年奥杜博特和斯托拉制成第一块“硫化镉”太阳能电池。

1941 年奥杜在硅上发现光伏效应。

1954 年5 月美国贝尔实验室恰宾、富勒和皮尔松开发出效率为6%的单晶硅太阳能电池,这是世界上第一个有实用价值的太阳能电池,同年威克首次发现了砷化镍有光伏效应,并在玻璃上沉积硫化镍博膜,制成了太阳能电池,太阳光转化为电能的实用光伏发电技术由此诞生并发展起来。

3.光伏电池是怎么发电的?

光伏电池是一种具有光、电转换特性的半导体器件,它直接将太阳辐射能转换成直流电,是光伏发电的最基本单元,光伏电池特有的电特性是借助与在晶体硅中掺入某些元素(例如磷或硼等),从而在材料的分子电荷里造成永久的不平衡,形成具有特殊电性能的半导体材料,在阳光照射下具有特殊电性能的半导体内可以产生自由电荷,这些自由电荷定向移动并积累,从而在其两端闭合时便产生电能,这种现象被称为“光生伏打效应”简称光伏效应。

4.光伏发电系统由哪些部件构成?

光伏发电系统由光伏方阵(光伏方阵由光伏组件串并联而成)、控制器、蓄电池组、直流/交流逆变器等部分组成.光伏发电系统的核心部件是光伏组件,而光伏组件又是由光伏电池串、并联并封装而成,它将太阳的光能直接转化为电能,光伏组件产生的电为直流电,我们可以利用也可以用逆变器将其转换成为交流电加以利用,从另一个角度来看对于光伏系统产生的电能可以即发即用,也可以用蓄电池等储能装置将电能存放起来,根据需要随时释放出来使用。

5.什么是配电网?配电网与分布式光伏发电有什么关系?

配电网是从输电网或地区发电厂接受电能,通过配电设施就地分配或按电压逐级分配给各类用户的电力网,是由架空线路、电缆、杆塔、配电变压器、隔离开关、无功补偿电容、计量装置以及一些附属设施组成的一般采用闭环设计,并环运行,其结构成辐射状,分布式电源接入配电网使配电系统中发电与用电并存,配电网结构从放射状结构变为多电源结构,短路电流大小、流向以及分布特性均发生改变。

6.为什么说光伏电力是绿色低碳能源?

光伏发电具有显著的能源、环保和经济效益,是最优质的绿色能源之一,在我国平均日照条件下安装1 千瓦光伏发电系统,1 年可发出1200 度电,可减少煤炭(标准煤)使用量约400 千克,减少二氧化碳排放约1 吨,根据世界自然基金会(WWF)研究结果:从减少二氧化碳效果而言,安装1 平米光伏发电系统相当于植树造林100 平米,目前发展光伏发电等可再生能源是根本上解决雾霾、酸雨等环境问题的有效手段之一。

7.如何看待有报道说“生产光伏电池组件时消耗大量能源”的消息?

光伏电池在其生产过程中确实要消耗一定的能量,特别是工业硅提纯、高纯多晶硅生产、单晶硅棒\多晶硅锭生产三个环节的能耗高,但是光伏电池在20年的使用寿命期内能够不断产生能量。据测算在我国平均日照条件下,光伏发电系统全寿命期内能量回报超过其能源消耗的15 倍以上。在北京以最佳倾斜角安装的1 千瓦屋顶光伏并网系统的能量回收期为1.5-2 年,远底于光伏系统的使用寿命期。也就是说该光伏系统前1.5-2 年发出的电量是用来抵消其生产等过程消耗的能量,1.5-2 年之后发出的能量都是纯产出,所以应该从全生命周期角度评定光伏电池的能耗。

8.如何看待有报道说”生产光伏电池组件会产生大量污染的消息?

光伏电池组件生产包括多晶硅、硅锭硅片、光伏电池组和光伏组件几个产业链环节,相关污染的报道主要是指光伏组件的原材料、高纯多晶硅生产中产生的副产物,高纯多晶硅生产主要是使用改良西门子法,该法将冶金级硅转化成三氯氦硅,在加氢气还原成太阳能级多晶硅,另外会形成副产物氯化硅,四氯化硅遇潮湿空气即分解成硅酸和氯化氢,如果处理不当会产生污染问题,但是目前我国多晶硅生产企业采用的改良西门子法已可做到闭环生产,将副产物四氯化硅和尾气回收利用,实现清洁生产。2010 年12 月国家发布了《多晶硅行业准入条件》,规定还原尾气中四氯化硅、氯气回收利用率不低于98.5%、99%,因此成熟的改良西门子法生产技术完全满足环保要求,不会产生环境污染问题。

9.我们有多少太阳光可利用?它能够成为未来主导能源吗?

地球表面接受的太阳能辐射能够满足全球能源需求的1 万倍,地表面每平方米平均每年接收到的辐射随地域不同大约在1000-2000KWH之间,国际能源署数据显示,在全球4%的沙漠上安装太阳能光伏系统就足以满足全球能源需求。太阳能光伏享有广阔的发展空间,其潜力十分巨大。

据初步统计,我国仅利用现有的建筑安装光伏发电其市场潜力就大约为3万亿千瓦以上,再加上西部广阔的戈壁光伏发电市场潜力约为数十亿千瓦以上,随着光伏发电的技术进步和规模化应用,其发电成本还将进一步降低,成为更加具有竞争力的能源供应方式,逐步从补充能源到替代能源并极希望成为未来的主导能源。

资源与应用篇

10.我国太阳能资源是如何分布的?

我国太阳能总辐射资源丰富,总体呈高原大于平原,西部地区大于东部地区的分布特点,其中青藏高原最为丰富,四川盆地资源相对较低。

11.分布式光伏发电有哪些应用形式?

分布式光伏发电包括并网型、离网型及多能互补微网等应用形式,并网型分布式发电多应用于用户附近,一般与中、低压配电网并网运行,自发自用,不能发电或电力不足时从电网上购电,电力多余时向网上售电。离网型分布式光伏发电多应用于边远地区和海岛地区,它不与大电网连接,利用自身的发电系统和储能系统直接向负荷供电。分布式光伏系统还可以与其它发电方式组成多能互补微电系统,如水、风、光等,既可以作为微电网独立运行,也可以并入电网联网运行。

12.分布式光伏发电适用于哪些场合?

分布式光伏发电系统的适用场合可分为两大类:

一、可在全国各类建筑物和公共设施上推广,形成分布式建筑光伏发电系统,利用当地各类建筑物和公共设施建立分布式发电系统,满足电力用户的部分用电需求,为高耗能企业提供生产用电。

二、可在偏远地区海岛等少电无电地区推广,形成离网发电系统或微电网,由于经济发展水平的差距原因,我国仍有部分偏远地区的人口没有解决基本用电问题,以往的农网工程大多依靠大电网的延伸,小水电、小火电等供电,电网延伸困难极大,且供电半径过长,导致供电能质量较差,发展离网型分布式发电不仅可以解决处于无电少电地区居民基本用电问题,还可以清洁高效地利用当地的可在生能源,有效的解决了能源和环境之间的茅盾。

13.哪些地点适合安装分布式光伏发电系统?

工业领域厂房:特别是在用电量比较大、网购电费比较贵的工厂,通常厂房屋顶面积很大,屋顶开阔平整,适合安装光伏阵列并且由于用电负荷较大,分布式光伏并网系统可以做以就地消纳,抵消一部分网购电量,从而节省用户的电费。

商业建筑:与工业园区的作用效果类似,不同之处在于商业建筑多为水泥屋顶,更有利于安装光伏阵列,但是往往对建筑美观性有要求,按照商厦、写字楼、酒店、会议中心、度假村等服务业的特点,用户负荷特性一般表现为白天较高,夜间较低,能够较好的匹配光伏发电特性。

农业设施:农村有大量的可用屋顶,包括自有住宅、疏菜大棚、鱼塘等,农村往往处在公共电网的末梢,电能质量较差,在农村建设分布式光伏系统可提高用电保障和电能质量。

市政等公共建筑物:由于管理规范统一,用户负荷和商业行为相对可靠,安装积极性高,市政等公共建筑物也适合分布式光伏的集中连片建设。
边远农牧区及海岛:由于距离电网遥远,我国西藏、青海、新疆、内蒙古、
甘肃、四川等省份的边远农牧区以及我国沿海岛屿还有数百万无电人口,离网型光伏系统或与其它能源互补微网发电系统非常适合在这些地区应用。

14.什么叫与建筑结合的分布式光伏发电系统?

与建筑物结合的光伏并网发电是当前分布式光伏发电重要的应用形式,技术进展很快,主要表现在与建筑结合的安装方式和建筑光伏的电气设计方面,按照与建筑结合的安装方式的不同可以分为光伏建集成和光伏建筑附加。

15.光伏阵列在建筑物立面安装和屋顶安装有什么差异?

光伏阵列与建筑物相结合的方式可分为屋顶安装和侧立面安装两种方式,可以说这两种安装方式适合大多数建筑物。
屋顶安装形式主要有水平屋顶、倾斜屋顶和光伏采光顶

其中:
水平屋顶上光列阵可以按最佳角度安装,从而获得最大发电量,并且可采用常规晶体硅光伏组件,减少组件投资成本,往往经济性相对较好,但是这种安装方式的美观性一般。
倾斜屋顶在北半球向正南、东南、西南、正东或正西的屋顶均可以用于安装光伏阵列,在正南向的倾斜屋顶上可以按照最佳角度或接近最佳角度安装。
光伏采光顶指以透明光伏电池作为采光顶的建筑构件,美观性很好,并且满足透光的需要,但是光伏采光顶需要透明组件,组件效率较低,除发电透明外,采光顶构件要满足一定的力学、美学、结构连接等建筑方面要求,组件成本高,发电成本高,为建筑提升社会价值带来绿色概念的效果。
侧立面安装主要是指在建筑物南墙、东墙上安装光伏组件的方式,对于高层建筑来说墙体是与太阳光接触面积最大的外表面,光伏幕墙是使用较为普遍的一种应用方式。

16.农业大棚、鱼塘可以安装分布式光伏并网系统吗?

大棚的升温、保温一直都是个困扰农户的重点问题,光伏农业大棚有望解决这一难题,由于夏季的高温在6-9 月份众多品类的蔬菜无法正常成长,而光伏农业大棚如同在农业大棚外添加了一个分光机,可隔绝红外线, 阻止过多的热量进去大棚,在冬季和黑夜的时候又能阻止大棚内的红处波段的光向外辐射,起到保温效果。光伏农业大棚能供给农业大棚内照明等所需电力,剩余电力还能并网。

在离网形式的光伏大棚中可与LED系统相互调配,白日阻光保障植物生长,同时发电。黑夜LED 系统应用白日电力提供照明。
在鱼塘中也可以架设光伏阵列,池塘可以继续养鱼,光伏阵列还可以为养鱼提供良好的遮挡作用,较好地解决了发展新能源和大量占用地的矛盾,因此农业大棚和鱼塘可以安装分布式光伏发电系统。


政策篇


17.什么是“自发自用,余电上网"?

自发自用余电上网是指分布式光伏发电系统所发电力主要由电力用户自己使用,多余电量接入电网,它是分布式光伏发电的一种商业模式,对于这种运行模式光伏并网点设在用户电表的负载侧,需要增加一块光伏反送电量的计量电表或者将电网用电电表设置成双向计量,用户自己直接用掉的光伏电量,以节省电费的方式直接享受电网的销售电价,反送电量单独计量并以规定的上网电价进行结算。

18.什么是“光伏上网标杆电价”政策?

光伏上网标杆电价政策是根据光伏发电的当前成本,并考虑合理利润后制定的电价,光伏项目开发商以这样的价格将光伏电量出售给电网企业,其中高出当地脱硫煤火电机组上网标杆电价的差额部分来取全网分摊的办法对电网企业进行回补,光伏上网标杆电价政策主要适用于大型光伏电站。

19.什么是“单位电量定额补贴”政策?

单位电量定额补贴政策简称度电补贴政策,就是按光伏系统所发出的电量进行补贴,主要适用于分布式光伏发电系统,分布式发电采用度电补贴政策特点是自发自用,余电上网,即自发自用的光伏电量不做交易,国家按照自用电量给与补贴,富余上网电量除了电网企业支付的脱硫煤火电机组上网标杆电价外也享受国家的度电补贴。

20.“自发自用”电量和“余电上网”电量的补贴方式相同吗?

目前国家政策对分布式光伏发电采取单位电量定额补贴的方式,即对光伏系统的全部发电量都进行补贴费,所以无论是自发自用电量还是余电上网电量均按同一标准补贴。

21.不同领域的分布式光伏发电补贴是否相同?

鼓励各类电力用户、投资企业、专业化合同能源管理服务公司以及个人等作为项目单位投资建设和经营分布式光伏发电项目,对于分布式光伏发电目前采用对所有分布式光伏电量给予定额补贴,因此光伏度电收益直接受户用电价水平的影响,工商业用电电价在0.8-1.4 元每度,大工业用电电价在0.6-0.8 元每度,公共事业单位用电电价在0.5-0.6 元每度,政府学校医院事业单位、农业用电和居民用电则只有0.3-0.5 元每度,因此采用单位电量定额补贴对于安装在不同建筑或电力用户的分布式光伏项目的收益是不同的,这需要开发商自己判断和决定项目是否合算。

22.有关分布式光伏发电相关政策应该咨询哪些部门?

有关分布式光伏发电相关的政策应当咨询地市级县级主管部门,国务院能源主管部门鼓励地市级或县级能源主管部门结合当地实际,建立与并网接入申请,并网调试和验收,电费和补贴发放与结算等相结合的分布式光伏发电项目备案,竣工验收等一站式服务体系,简化办理流程,提高管理效率。

23.用户怎样获得国家的电量补贴?

电网企业负责指导和配合项目单位开展分布式光伏发电项目的并网运行和验收,与项目单位签订订购售合同,电网企业对分布项目的全部发电量和上网电量分别计量。

对分布式发电项目按电量给予补贴,电网企业应按照国家规定的上网电价与项目单位结算上网电费,并按国家规定的电量补贴的政策对项目单位全部发电量按月向项目单位转付国家补贴资金。

24.分布式光伏发电补贴资金通过什么方式发放给业主?

用户从电网购电执行正常的用电价格政策,多余光伏发电量上网,由电网企业按照当地脱硫煤火电标杆电价收购,分布式光伏发电项目所发电量无法满足项目对应的电力用户的用电需求的,电网企业必须像对待普通电力用户一样承担供电责任。

光伏发电项目可由电力用户自建,也可采用合同能源管理方式,合同能源管理企业应与电力用户依国家关于合同能源管理等规定签订能源服务协议,用户自建光伏系统的自用电量不成交易,对于项目业主安装在其它电力用户屋顶上的自用光伏电量,由项目业主与电力用户按照合同能源管理协议进行结算。
对光伏系统的发电量,多余光伏上网电量由电网企业负责计量、统计,光伏系统全部发电量均可得到国家电量定额补贴,电网企业依着光伏电量的计量数据按照国家规定的度电补贴标准按结算周期转发国家补贴资金。

并网申请流程篇

25.如何向电网公司申请分布式光伏并网发电系统接入?

分布式项目业主在准备好想资料后向电网公司地市或县客户报务中心提交接入申请,客户服务中心协助项目业主填写接入申请表,接入申请受理后在电网公司承诺的时限内,客户服务中心将通知项目业主确认接入系统方案,项目建成后业主向客户服务中心提出并网验收和调试申请,电网企业将完成电能计量装置安装,购售电合同及调度协议签订,并网验收及调试工作,之后项目即可并网发电。

26.发出的电用不完怎么办?如何向电网卖出光伏余电?

与电网公司签订有上网电量的相关协议后电网公司对用不完的上网电量进行计量,根据国家规定的价格和补贴标准按照电费结算周期及时支付给项目业主。

27.分布式系统申请接入是否需要费用?个人和企业申请分布式光伏并网系统各需要什么资料,流程分别是什么?

电网公司在并网申请人受理、接入系统方案制定、接入系统工程设计审查、计量装置安装、合同和协议签订、并网验收和并网调试、政府补助计量和结算服务中,不收取任何费用。

自然人和法人申请分布式光伏发电并网分别需要如下资料:
自然人申请需提供经办人身份证及复印件、户口本、房产证等项目合法支持性文件

法人申请需提供经办人身份证及复印件和法人受托书原件(或法定代表人身份证原件及复印件),企业法营业执照、土地证等项目合法性支持文件、政府投资主管部门同意项目开展前期工作的批复(需核准项目)、项目前期工作相关资料。

28.分布式光伏系统并网霈要考虑什么问题?

分布式光伏系统并网需考虑安全、光伏配置、计量和结算方面的问题,在安全方面并网点开关是否符合安全要求、设备在电网异常或故障时的安全性能否在电网停电时可靠断开以保证人身安全。

在光伏配置方面光伏容量的配置、主要设备选择、接入点的选择、系统监测控制功能的实现,反孤岛装置的配置安装等。

在计量和结算方面计费和结算方式、上网电价情况、获得电价补贴所需的材料,数据及流程等。

29.在自己安装光伏发电系统,如何获得小区物业的支持和邻居们的同意?

目前物权问题是需要解决的重要问题,要提供其他业主、物业、居委会的同意证明,包括所在单元所有邻居的书面签字证明以及所在小区物业、业委会同意的证明,并由其所在社区居委会盖章。

30.如果电网停电或发生其他故障,分布式能正常运行吗?

电网停电后,分布式光伏发电系统一般都会退出运行,不能正常发电,但在某些极端情况下可能会出现孤岛现象,即电网停电后分布式发电系统仍然带着部分负荷继续运行,影响检修人员人身安全,并存在陨坏家用电器及电网设施的可能性,因此分布式系统必须具备防孤岛功能。

31.当地电力公司是否有专人受理分布式光伏系统并网申请业务?联系热线是什么?

国家电网公司为分布式发电并网提供客户服务中心,95598 服务热线网上营业厅等多种咨询渠道,向项目业主提供并网办理流程说明,想关政策规定解释、并网工作进度查询等服务,申请分布式光伏并网可由当地电力公司客户服务中心咨询办理,也可联系国家民电网公司服务热线进行咨询。

32.什么是交钥匙工程?

对工程进行设计、采购、施工的总承包,最后直接移交运行称为交钥匙工程,与通常所说的工程总承包含义相似,对于分布式光伏发电项目的用户报装工程按照现场勘查与确定接入方案、工程设计与设备选择、施工与竣工验收、现场并网调试、并网发电的流程,提供全程服务,用直接接收整个工程,立刻投入发运营,称为交钥匙工程。

项目管理篇

33.如何管理分布式光伏发电项目?

国务院能源主管部门负责全国分布式光伏发电规划指导和监督管理,地方能源主管部门在国务院能源主管部门指导下负责本地区分布式发电项目建设和监督管理,委托国家太阳能发电技术归口管理单位承接技术、信息和工程质量控制工作。

34.分布式光伏发电项目为什么需要备案?不需要国家补贴的项目能开工建设么?
现阶段分布式发电仍然需要国家补贴,假定每年安装600 万千瓦分布式发电,全年发电量至少70 亿度,如果每度电补贴0.42 元则需要几十亿元人民币,为了优化补贴资金配置,备案是必须的,分布式发电项目由地市级或县级能源主管部门实行备案管理,如果项目不需要国家补贴,则可直接实行备案管理后就可以开工建设。
35.分布式光伏发电项目如何备案,应准备哪些材料?
项目单位向地市级或县级能源主管部门提交固定资产投资备案表和分布式发电项目备案申请表,应包含以下材料:
(1)符合建筑等设施安装光伏发电系统相关规定的项目方案
(2)项目用地或屋顶等场所使用证明
(3)地市级或县级电网公司出具的项目并网接入意见
(4)如果项目采用合同能源管理方式,则需要提供与电力用户签订的能源服务管理合同等材料
(5)地方政府根据有关规定要求提供的其它材料

36.哪些情况可能出现备案失败或者失效?

地市级或县级能源主管部门在受理项目备案申请之日起10 个工作日内完成备案审核并将审核意见告知项目单位,当申请项目的累计规模超出该地区年度指导规模时,当地能源主管部门发布通知,停止受理项目备案申请,分布式发电项目备案有效期内如果无特殊原因未建成投产,项目备案文件自动失效。

37.备案过的项目还能够申请变更么?怎么变更?

备案过的项目一般情况下不能随意变更,如果项目实施过程中遇到特殊情况,必须变更方案,则必须按照当初的申报程序申请方案变更的。

38.个人(家庭)安装分布式光伏发电系统怎么界定?有什么优惠政策?

鼓励各位电力用户、投资企业、专业化合同能源服务公司以及个人等作为项目单位投资建设和经营分布式光伏发电项目。
个人安装的分布式光伏项目原则上自发自用,余电上网,电网调节余缺,对于自用光伏电量,自动抵消电网用电量,不进行交易,对于富余上网光伏电量电网公司以当地脱硫煤标杆电价收购,个人作为项目单位建设分布式光伏设施单个项目装机规模原则上不大于30 千瓦,各省有能源主管部门可视情况简化项目管理。

设计安装篇

39.分布式光伏并网发电系统是由哪几部分构成的?

分布式光伏发电系统有光伏组件、光伏并网逆变器、双向计量电能表构成。

40.如何取得当地的太阳能资源数据?

对于光伏系统设计而言,第一步,也是非常关键的一步,就是分析项目安装使用地点的太阳能资源以及相关气象资料。诸如当地太阳能辐射量、降水量、风速等气象数据,是设计系统的关键数据。目前可以免费查询到全球任何地点的气象数据为NASA 美国太空总署气象数据库。

41.如何选择分布式光伏并网系统的并网电压?

分布式光伏系统并网电压主要由系统装机容量所决定,具体并网电压需根据电网公司的接入系统批复决定,一般户用选用AC220V 接入电网,商用可选择AC380V 或10kV 接入电网。

42.光伏阵列安装倾角由什么决定?

光伏阵列安装倾角一般又安装地点的纬度决定,下表给出我国主要城市的维度值和安装倾角。

43.光伏阵列的安装朝向如何确定?对发电效果有何影响?
由于影响光伏发电的主要原因为日照量,所以组件安装时应向阳光最充足的方向安装,不同安装角度对光伏组件的发电量亦有影响。

44.如何选用光伏组件?

根据安装现场的具体情况可选用不同类型的光伏组件,安装现场的有效利用面积决定组件的规格尺寸,单位面积内想安装更大容量的话可选用高效率组件,根据现有建筑的外观也可选择不同边框的组件,根据现场的串联并联接线方式固定组件的接件长度,组件的选择用需要综合考虑安装面积、装机容量、成本等要素,一般来讲应选用信益好,质量好,有认证,质保售后服务好,具有防火认证的组件产品。

45.如何选用逆变器?

一般根据系统的要求配置对应功率段的逆变器,选择的逆变器的功率应该与光伏电池方阵的最大功率匹配,一般选取光伏逆变器的额定输出功率与输入总功率相近左右,这样可以节约成本。

46.对于与建筑结合的分布式光伏发电项目,如何考虑光伏组件的颜色、透光、尺寸和形状?

颜色方面可以尽量选择与建筑颜色相近的,对于透光要考虑充分利用建筑空间和面积,合理选择尺寸和形状,做好平衡和优化,以及专业的技术设计。

47.光伏阵列的设计安装要考虑风速的影响吗?安装分布式光伏时应如何考虑建筑荷载和抗风能力要求?

在建筑物屋顶安装光伏列阵,必须考虑建筑物屋顶的载荷,同时考虑气流在遇到建筑物后产生的紊流和速度变化对光伏阵列的安全性影响,只有充分考虑当地风况、地貌、地形以及计划安装光伏阵列的建筑物在周边环境的相对位置,才能确保光伏阵列和周边生命财产的安全。

48.如何决定家用光伏发电系统的装机容置?

家用光伏发电系统装机容量的大小,取决于用电设备负载、屋顶的样式和屋顶的面积,并结合电网公司的批复意见,确定最佳安装容量,一般情况下平面屋顶安装量约为70 瓦\每平米。

49.如何估算分布式光伏并网系统的发电量?

要估算光伏发电系统的发电量,需要知道系统安装当地的有效日照时间、系统效率、系统安装容量。也可向光伏系统安装商咨询,得到更为精确的的发电量。

50.分布式光伏发电系统并网后,怎么区分家里当前用的电量来自电网还是自己家的太阳电池组件?

在分布式发电系统安装完成后,电网公司会进行并网的检验验收,验收合格后会在业主家里安装两块(或双向电表),两块电表会分别对光伏系统的发电和市电的用电量进行独立计量。

51.安装后如果连续阴雨或者雾霾,光伏发电系统还会工作吗? 会不会电力不足或者断电?

光伏电池组件在一定弱光下也是可以发电的,但是由于连续阴雨或者雾霾天气,太阳光辐射照度较低,光伏系统的工作电压如果达不到逆变器的启动电压,那么系统就不会工作,并网发电系统与配电网是并联运行的,当光伏系统不能满足负载需求而不工作时,电网的电将自动补充过来,不存在电力不足与断电的问题。

52.冬天天冷时会不会电力不足?

光伏系统的发电量的确受影响,直接影响发电量的因素是辐照强度和日照时长以及太阳电池组件的工作温度,冬天难免辐照强度会弱,日照市时长会短,一般发电量较夏天会少,这也是很正常的现象,分布式光伏发电与电网与电网相联,只要电网有电家庭负载就不会出现电力不足和断电的情况。

53.分布式光伏接入会不会影响电能质量?

电能质量即电力系统中电能的质量,系统的主要交直流转换部件为逆变器,逆变器经过电能质量测试仪测试合格后才投产使用,所以不会对电能质量造成影响。

54.可以将白天分布式光伏发电系统所发的电力储存起来用作夜晚照明吗?

可以将白天分布式发电系统所发的电力储存起来用作夜晚照明,这需要添加控制器和蓄电池等电器元件,白天控制器将光伏所发的电力储存在蓄电池中,晚上控制器将蓄电池所储电力释放出来供照明使用,在设有储能设备的情况下,如果电网断电系统将停止工作,但是若把其中的并网逆变器换成智能微网逆变器(并网与离网混合逆变器),系统依然可以正常运转。

55.在既有建筑上安装光伏发电系统需要另行布线吗?如何和家中已有的电气系统连接?

光伏系统的线路分为直流部分和交流部分,这两部分线路是需要单独布线的,交流部分要与电网进行连接,并网点设在用户侧电表位置,最终与用户家中已有电气系统连接。

56.分布式光伏并网系统的监控装置安在哪些地方,会不会占据宝贵的室内空间?

分布式光伏并网系统的监控装置分为大型光伏电站监控,离网光伏屋顶系统监控和户用屋顶光伏系统监控。光伏监控系统可以安装在室外,不占用室内空间,它以多种硬件产品及配套附件能够实现对光伏系统中各个环节的数据采集,数据传输到远程服务平台进行相关的数据存储与分析,最后以报表曲线图等形式向用户反馈系统运行情况。

57.设计工程师在根据客户要求进行系统设计时,需要客户提供哪些资料?

系统设计时需要客户要求提供的资料分为选项和强选项部分,必选项部分包括项目安装地点,建筑周围环境、建筑建设年份、屋顶类型、屋顶载荷、接入电压等级和屋顶照片等,可选项部分包括平均每月用电量、屋顶板结构、CAD 图纸、屋顶表面情况、电表箱照片等,当然可选部分填写的越详细越有助于更加合理地进行优化设计,更好的提高发电量。

58.系统建好之后会由何甲位去验收?验收时要关注哪些地方?

验收时主要由电网企业组织开展,重点关注并网电性能、工程的建设质量、组件认证、逆变器认证与技术参数、防雷接地、消防安全、组件防火认证等内容。

59.安装过程怎么进行的?

分布式光伏并网发电系统的安装过程是:基础的建设,支架的安装,组件的安装,汇流箱,逆变器,配电柜等电器设备的安装,连接线路的安装,电网接入系统及计量装置的安装。

60.安装过程霈要注意哪些电气安全要求?会不会漏电对人身产生危睑?
只要有阳光,光伏组件就会有电,所以有阳光的时候是无法切断电源的,而且由于串接电压和积累,相应的对地电压也会很高,因此安装过程中应严格遵守系统供应商提出的安装使用说明书,由专业安装人员完成,设备的接线部分均使用专业的接件进行安装,防护等级设为IP65,电器设备也均有空气开关进行保护,

61.分布式光伏与建筑结合时如何满足建筑隔热隔音的要求? 是否会影响室内采光?

1. 采用不同的玻璃材质和结构控制隔热和隔音,分布式系统设备户内型的噪音由用户和制造厂协议确定,满足广大用户的需求,与建筑结合的可设计隔音与隔热层,满足不同用户个性化需求。

2. 采用不同的电池片及排布方式来调整透光率,分布式与建筑结合时会留出采光区域,不会影响室内采光。

62.与建筑结合的光伏发电如何防雷?

雷电主要分为两种危害,直接雷击和间接雷击。
直击雷的防护:在高大的建筑上设立金属避雷入地导线,可将巨大的雷雨云层电荷释放掉。
感应雷的防护;在光伏系统中加入防雷器,也就是在汇流箱、逆变器等电器设备中装加防雷模块,用以防护间接雷击。

63.什么是双向电表?为什么需要双向电表?

双向计量电能表就是能够计量用电和发电的电能表,功率和电能都是有方向的,从用电的角度看,耗电的算为正功率或正电能,发电的算为负功率或负电能,该电表可以通过显示屏分别读出正向电量和反向电量并将电量数据存储起来。

安装双向电表的原因是由于光伏发出的电存在不能全部被用户消耗的情况,而余下的电能则需要输送给电网,电表需要计量一个数字,在光伏发电不能满足用户需求时,这又需要计量另一个数字,普通单块表不能达到这一要求,所以需要使用具有双向电表计量功能的智能电表。

运行维护篇

64.分布式光伏发电系统的常见故障有哪些?系统各部件可能出现哪些典型问题?

由于电压未达到启动设定值造成逆变器无法工作、无法启动,由于组件或逆变器原因造成发电量低等,系统部件可能出现的典型问题有接线盒烧毁、组件局部烧毁。

65.如何处理分布式光伏发电系统的常见故障?
系统在质保期内出现问题时可先电话联系安装商或运营商将系统问题说明,安装商或运营商维护商会根据用户叙述内容进行解答,如无法将故障排除会派出专人到现场进行检修。

66.分布式光伏发电系统的寿命有多长?

不带蓄电池的光伏发电系统,设计寿命一般为20-25 年。

67.如何降低光伏发电系统的维护成本?

建议选择的系统各部件和材料市面上口碑好的,售后服务好的产品,合格的产品能降低故障的发生率,用户应严格遵守系统产品的使用手册,定期对系统进行检测和清洁维护。

68.系统后期维护怎么处理,多久维护一次?怎样维护?

根据产品供应商的使用说明书对需要定期检查的部件进行维护,系统主要的维护工作是擦拭组件,而水较大的地区一般不需要人工擦拭,非雨季节大概1个月清洁一次,降尘量较大的地区可以增加清洁的次数,降雪量大的地区及将厚重积雪去除,避免影响发电量和雪融后产生的不均匀,及时清理遮挡的树木或杂物。

69.清洁光伏组件时用清水冲洗和简单的擦拭就行么?用水擦拭的时候会不会有触电的危险?

为了避免在高温和强烈光照下擦拭组件对人身的电击伤害以及可能对组件的破坏,建议在早晨或者下午较晚的时候进行组件清洁工作,建议清洁光伏组件玻璃表面时用柔软的刷子,干净温和的水,清洁时使用的力度要小,以避免损坏玻璃表面,有镀膜玻璃的组件要注意避免损坏玻璃层。

70.如何正确利用停机维护时间?

优先选择清晨或傍晚光线弱系统未运行的时候对系统进行维护,维护前做好防护措施载绝缘手套使用绝缘工具。

71.如何发现光伏阵列中某一块光伏组件是否出现故陣?
当用户发现在相同时间系统的发电量有所降低或与邻近安装相同的发电系统相比有所降低,则系统可能存在异常,用户可通过汇流箱中监测数据的异常波动及时发现光伏阵列中某一组件是否出现故障,然后联系专业人员用钳型表、热像仪等专业化设备对系统进行诊断,最终确定系统中出现问题的组件。

72.光伏组件上的房屋阴影、树叶甚至鸟粪的遮挡会对发电系统造成影响吗?

光伏组件上的房屋阴影、树叶甚至鸟粪的遮挡会对发电系统造成比较大的影响,每个组件所用太阳电池的电特性基本一致,否则将在电性能不好或被遮挡的电池上产生所谓热斑效应,一串联中被遮挡的太阳电池组件将被当做负载消耗其它有光照的太阳电池组件所产生的能量,被遮挡的太阳电池组件此时会发热,这就是热效应现象,这种现象严重的情况下会损坏太阳能组件,为了避免串联支路的热斑需要在光伏组件上加装旁路二极管,为了防止串联回路的热斑则需要在每一路光伏组串上安装直流保险,即使没有热斑效应产生太阳电池的遮挡也会影响到发电量。

73.为防止光伏组件遭重物撞击,能不能给光伏阵列加装铁丝防护网?

不建议安装铁丝防护网,因为沿光伏阵列加装铁丝防护网可能会给组件局部造成阴影,形成热斑效应,对整个光伏电站的发电效率造成影响。另外,由于合格的光伏组件均已通过冰球撞击实验,一般情况下的撞击不会影响组件的性能。

74.烈日当空,易损器件坏了需立即更换吗?

不能够立即更换,如要更换建议在早晨或者下午较晚的时候进行,应及时联系电站运维人员,由专业人员前往更换。

75.雷雨防雷天气需要断开光伏发电系统吗?

分布式光伏发电系统都装有防雷装置,所以不用断开。为了安全保险建议可以选择断开汇流箱的断路器开关,切断与光伏组件的电路连接,避免防雷模块无法去除的直击雷产生危害,运维人员应及时检测防雷模块的性能,以避免防雷模块失效产生的危害。

76.雪后需要清理光伏发电系统吗?光伏组件冬天积雪消融结冰后如何处理?可以踩在组件上面进行清理工作吗?

雪后组件上如果堆积有厚重积雪是需要清洁的,可以利用柔软物品将雪推下,注意不要划伤玻璃,组件是有一定承重的,但是不能踩在组件上面清扫,会造成组件隐蔽损坏,影响组件寿命,一般建议不要等积雪过厚在清洗,以免组件过度结冰。

77.分布式光伏发电系统能抵抗冰雹的危害吗?

光伏并网系统中的合格组件必须通过正面最大静载荷(风载荷、雪载荷)5400P
A,背面最大静载荷2400PA 和直径25MM 的冰雹以23M/S 秒的速度撞击等严格的测试,因此不会对光伏发电系统带来危害。

78.如何处理太阳电池的温升和通风问题?

光伏电池的输出功率会随着温度上升而降低,通风散热可以提高发电效率,最常用的办法为自然风进行通风。

79.光伏发电系统对用户有电磁福射危害吗?
光伏发电系统是根据光产生伏打效应原理将太阳能转换为电能,无污染、无辐射,逆变器、配电柜等电子器件都通过EMC(电磁兼容性)测试,所以对人体没有危害。

80.光伏发电系统有噪音危害吗?

光伏发电系统是将太阳能转换为电能,不会产生燥音影响,逆变器的噪音指标不高于65 分贝,也不会有噪音危害。

81.户用分布式光伏发电系统的防火和消防应注意什么问题?
分布式发电系统附近禁止堆放易燃易爆物品,一旦发生火灾所造成的人员及财产损失不可估量,除了基本的消防安全措施外,还特别提醒光伏系统具有自我检测、和防火功能,降低火灾发生可能性,此外还需要每隔最长40 米就必须预留防火和维修通道,而且必须有方便操作的紧急直流系统断路开关。

82.并网光伏发电系统出现故障后,用户应向谁报修,有没有全国统一服务电话?

光伏系统出现故障要第一时间将问题反馈给安装商,安装商会在最短时间内做出故障处理,建议选择大品牌、信誉好的安装商。


质量监控篇

83.为什么要重视分布式光伏发电系统的质量监控?

首先分布式光伏发电系统多是与建筑相结合,若是系统质量存在问题不但可能造成发电系统内部设备的损坏,甚至会危害到建筑物配电站及周边人员的安全,其次分布式光伏发电系统多为自用,若是系统质量存在问题可能会对用电设备造成损坏。再次分布发电系统是以发电量来获得经济效益的,若质量存在问题就会影响整个系统的发电量和寿命,进而影响整个系统的收益。

84.各个部件合格就意味系统集成不需检测了吗?

光伏发电系统虽然是由各个部件组成,但各部件合格并不意味着系统集成就合格,系统的整体设计和配置、安全和运行性能等都需要进行检测和验证。

85.怎样选择合格的系统配件产品,质保时间大概多久?

建议选择通过国家批准认证机构的系统配件产品,系统配件产品的规格型号和技术参数应附合整个系统的设计要求,一般来说组件要求质保五年,逆变器要求质保至少两年。

86.获得国家补贴需要哪些产品认证?

在电网接入验收环节要保证建成的光伏发电系统符合相应的安全标准和质量要求才能通过验收,光伏发电系统中主要设备包括组件、汇流箱、逆变器等都是需要有相应的国内认证。

87.怎样判断分布式光伏并网系统的质量好坏?

分布式光伏并网系统的质量好坏要经过部件和系统两个部分的综合检测才能确定,检测内容包括对各个部件的检测,对系统安全和性能进行检测。

88.分布式光伏并网系统出现质量问题后,供应商会走什么维修程序,大概需要多长时间?

分布式光伏并网系统出现质量问题后现场地维护人员需要判断问题点,反馈给供应商,供应商通常会先派工程师到现场地确认质量问题并进行解决,若是由于关键设备引起的质量问题,供应商会联系设备厂家,设备厂家工和师一般一周内会到现场进行维修处理。

89.业主怎样大致判断自己的光伏系统的优劣?怀疑系统存在质量问题应该如何寻求得到解决?

业主可以从以下几个方面进行初步判断,首先对系统外观进行检查,如组件、阵列、汇流箱等,若发现问题可以采取相应措施及时解决,检查电站建设承包单位采用的系统部件是否具备质量认证证书,另外还要对系统的安全性进行现场测试,如接地线连续性,绝缘性,是否具有防雷装置等,还需要对系统电气效率进行测试,如果发现问题,应该让电站建设单位及时解决。

90.如何判断分布式光伏并网系统工作是否稳定,电能质量是否达到要求,系统故障状态下是否会对家用电器造成损坏?

分布式光伏并网系统一般都具有数据监控功能的,可以通过对监控数据的分析判断系统是否稳定运行,如有条件也可以使用电能质量分析议在电站并网点电能质量进行测试,看是否符合国家标准要求,一般光伏系统故障情况下会有保护装置切断电源,因此不会对家用电器造成损坏。

91.分布式光伏并网系统的发电量监控数据和电表的计量数据是一样的吗?误差有多大?

分布式光伏并网系统的发电量监控数据和电表的计量数据不一定是一样的,如在同一个并网点采用想同的电量计量设备,精度也完全想同,那么得出的数据应该是一样的,但光伏并网系统使用的监控设备往往是系统建设单位自己采用的设备,而电表计量设备往往是电力部门的设备,因此设备不同得到的数据可能也会有一些差距,误差有多少要根据具体情况而定,而电费和补贴费用的结算是依据电力部门安装的计量设备。

92.并网时如何监控上网电量?

目前并网光伏发电系统主要是通过在并网点安装经过当地电力部门认可的电能计量表来进行监控,另外当地的电力调试中心通常可以通过远程通讯对各个并网光伏系统上网电量进行监控,业主也可以自行建设简化的信息系统,监控和优化上网电量。

93.系统的发电量能够实现在线监测吗?
各电网企业配合本级能源主管部门并展开本能电网覆盖范围内分布式发电的计量,信息监测与统计。若是用户光伏系统安装有相应的监控系统可以对发电量实现在线监测,另外监测系统还可对关键设备参数、电能质量、环境参数等实现在线监测。

94.我国目前获得许可的光伏系统和产品检测和质量认证机构有哪些?

认证机构主要有:北京鉴衡认证中心和中国质量认证中心。
检测机构主要有:中国科学院太阳光伏发电系统和风力发电系统质量检测中心、国家太阳能光伏产品质量监督检验中心、中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所、中国航天科技集团公司第811 研究所、深圳电子产品质量检测中心、杨
州光电产品检测中心等。

成本效益与商业模式篇


95.如何估算家庭分布式光伏发电系统的投资? 一般需要多长时间才可以收回成本?

投资安装家用分布式光伏发电系统取决于安装容量和系统投资两个主要条件,其中光伏发电系统的硬件(包括光伏组件、并网逆变器、线材、安装支架、计量表、监控设备等)成本会随着市场供求关系的波动、光伏行业的技术进步和效率提升而有所变化,并且是与安装容量大小有关,一般是按系统的单瓦价格来计算,除了硬件购买之外还要加上系统的基础施工,系统安装,调式与并网过程中产生的少量费用,系统安装容量越大,成本构成中的一些基础费用会被摊薄,使得单位投资成本有所下降。
根据光照条件、用户侧电价、补贴及系统成本的不同,6-10 年即可以收回成本,余下的15 年所产生的电量收入会成为利润。togrenner 的投资评估小软件,可以大概测算一个数值供参考。

96.如何估算分布式光伏发电系统的运行维护成本?

分布式光伏发电系统的运行维护主要是对系统的机械安装、电气连接的日常检测,对光伏组件的清洗,对部分失效部件的更换等简单操作,成本相对较低,对于10 千瓦以下的系统维护成本几乎可以忽略不计,但是MW 级的电站应当预算1%-3%维护成本进入系统的总投资,每次每平方米的清洗成本在0.5-0.8元不等,主要取决于当地人工成本和运维服务提供人员的多少。

97.如何估算分布式光伏发电系统的度电成本?

发电成本与安装地点的人工成本、日照资源、安装方式、系统投资、当地电价、系统有效寿命、财务成本等有着密切的关系,所以度电成本肯定不是一个精确的数据,综合考虑这些因素,假定分布式光伏发电的寿命为20 年,根据不同地区资源和技术条件,分布式光伏发电的度电成本大致的范围为0.7-1.4元/度电左右。

98.如何核算分布式光伏发电业主的补贴收益?

补贴收益分为三个部分,一部分是国家补贴,一部分是自发自用抵消的用电费用,一部分是剩余电量上网的脱硫煤收购电价,其中所有电量全部自用的补贴收益为(本地电价+分布式发电国家补贴)*全部发电量,部分电量自发自用,部分余电上网的补贴收益(自发自用的比例*本地电价+分布式发电国家补贴+上网比例*脱硫煤收购电价)*全部发电量。

99.影响投资收益的因素有哪些?

影响系统投资收益的主要原因有发电量设计(光照资源、系统转换效率、系统的维护水平),系统的初投资、财务成本、补贴政策、电站的质量可靠性与售后服务。具体来讲如何选择电站的建设地址、如何选择发电技术与供应商、如何提前做好投资收益分析、如何选择有规模有品牌的光伏系统提供商和质保服务、如何做好发电量优化等。

100.分布式光伏发电系统有哪些建设和商业模式?
分布式光伏发电项目所依托的建筑物以及设施应具有合法性,如果业主具有项目单位与项目所依托的建筑物所有权可以采用自建方式,业主出资建设,业主获得收益,如果项目单位与项目所依托的建筑及设施所有人非统一主体时,项目单位与建筑物及设施的所有人签订建筑物及设施的使用或租用协议,视经费方式与电力用户签订合同能源管理服务协议。

101.什么叫做合同能源管理?

合同能源管理是一种新型的市场化节能机制,其实质就是以减少的能源费用来支付节能项目全部成本的节能业务方式,这种节能降耗投资方式允许客户用未来的节能收益为工厂和设备升级,以降低运行成本,或者企业以承诺节能项目的节能效益或承包整体能源费用的方式为客户提供节能服务。

102.工商业用户安装光伏发电系统有什么好处?

工商业用户安装光伏发电系统的好处有:工商业用电量大,电价高,自发自用的比例大,回收期短,收益率高。另外光伏系统有节能减排的社会效益,能够帮工业用户完成节能减排指标,同时可以降低企业的用电成本,提高企业竟争力。

103.用户资金不足可以申请银行货款建设分布式光伏发电系统吗?借款人需要具备哪些条件?

除项目资本金外和资金,可以申请银行货款解决,近期部分银行和其他金融机构已经开始向分布式用户提供贷款等金融服务,如国家开发银行已联合国家能源局制定《关于支持分布式发电金融服务的意见》,明确了国家开发银行给予分布式光伏发电信贷支持的对像形式和条件等政策,一般而言信用状况良好、无重大不良记录的企事业法人以及具备完全民事责任的自然人都可以申请银行贷款。

104.申请银行贷款额度最高可达多少?期限多长?利率多少?还款方式有哪些?

参照我国有关投资项目资本金制度的规定,用户至少应筹集项目总投资20%的资本金,相应申请银行贷款的比例最高可达80%,参照电力项目中长期贷款,根据贷款人及项目实际,分布式光伏发电项目贷款期限一般最长可达15 年,目前我国逐步实现利率市场化,在人民银行基准利率的基础上,各银行可根据自身情况实行灵活定价,还款方式一般可实行等额本息或等额本金的还款方式。

105.分布式光伏发电项目的货款模式主要有哪些?

按用户是否直接向银行申请贷款进行分类,贷款模式可分为直接贷款模式和统借统还模式,符合银行规定的直接申请贷款资格的分布式发电投资主体可直接申请银行贷款支持,另对不符合直接申请贷款的企业和自然人,一般采用统借统还的模式予以支持,如国家开发银行计划建立具备借款资格和承贷能力的统借平台,由国家开发银行向统借平台提供授信,平台再以季托贷款(可通过商业银行)等方式向用户提供贷款支持,用户可以根据自身情况向当地银行或统借平台提出贷款申请。

106.申请银行贷款需要准备哪些资料?贷款发放需要哪些条件?

申请银行贷款的借款人一般需准备的材料,自然人身份证明、个人资产证明或企业经营执照、公司章程、近三年财务审计报告、项目备案、电网接入批复、用地或屋顶租赁协议、电力购买协议、能源管理合同等有关文件,一般情况贷款发放前应完成项目备案以及电力购买协议、能源管理合同等有关协议的签订。

"China distributed photovoltaic power generation 100 questions and answers" by the Renewable Energy Institute Photoelectric Professional Committee compiled, in order to facilitate the majority of photovoltaic micro friends to read, the site Xiaobian collated the text version.

This article is the most complete version of the network visible, welcome to forward the collection!

Principle and significance

one

1. What is photovoltaic power generation?What is distributed photovoltaic power generation?

Photovoltaic power generation refers to the use of solar radiation directly into electricity generation, photovoltaic power generation is the mainstream of solar power generation, so now people often say that solar power generation is photovoltaic power generation.

Distributed power generation refers to the photovoltaic power generation facilities built near the user site, which are mainly operated for spontaneous and self-use on the user side. The surplus electricity is connected to the Internet, but the distribution system is characterized by balance adjustment.

Distributed power generation follows the original test of adjusting measures to local conditions, clean and efficient, decentralized layout and nearby utilization, and makes full use of local solar energy resources to replace and reduce fossil energy consumption.

2. Do you know the historical origin of photovoltaic power generation?

In 1839, the 19-year-old French Henri Becquerel was doing physical experiments, and found that the current would be strengthened when two metal electrodes in the conductive liquid were irradiated with light, thus finding the "photovoltaic effect". In 1930, Langge first proposed using the "photovoltaic effect" to make solar cells, which turn the sun's energy into electricity.

In 1932, Odubote and Stolla made the first "cadmium sulfide" solar cell.

In 1941, Aldoo discovered the photovoltaic effect on silicon.

In May 1954, the United States bell LABS bing, fuller and peel loosen the efficiency as 6% of monocrystalline silicon solar cells, and this is the first in the world have the practical value of solar cells, and for the first time in the same year wake found nickel arsenide photovoltaic effect, and deposited nickel sulfide bo film on glass, made the solar cell, the sun's rays into electricity practical photovoltaic power generation technology was born and developed.

3. How do photovoltaic cells generate electricity?

Photovoltaic cell is a kind of light, electricity transformation characteristics of semiconductor devices, it directly convert solar radiation into direct current, is the most basic unit of photovoltaic power generation, electrical characteristics of pv cell characteristic is using and incorporating some elements in the crystalline silicon (such as phosphorus and boron, etc.), thereby having a permanent in material molecular charge imbalance, the formation of semiconductor materials with special performance, under the sun with special electrical produces free charge in the semiconductor, the directional movement and free charge accumulation, which generate electricity when it closed at both ends, a phenomenon known as "photovoltaic effect" referred to as the photovoltaic effect.

4. What are the components of a photovoltaic power generation system?

The photovoltaic power generation system is composed of photovoltaic phalanx (photovoltaic phalanx is composed of photovoltaic modules in series and parallel), controller, battery pack, DC/AC inverter and other parts. Core parts of photovoltaic power generation system is photovoltaic modules, and pv modules is packaged by photovoltaic cells and in series, in parallel, it will be the sun's light energy into electrical energy directly, photovoltaic modules generate electricity for direct current (dc), we can use them with inverter can also converted into alternating current use, from another point of view for photovoltaic system can generate electricity namely hair box, also can use the energy storage device such as battery energy storage, free to use at any time according to need.

5. What is a distribution network?What is the relationship between distribution network and distributed photovoltaic power generation?

Power plants to accept electricity from the grid or regions, by assigning or distribution facilities in situ according to voltage level assigned to each kind of user network, is made up of overhead line, cable, tower, power distribution transformer, isolating switch, reactive power compensation capacitance, metering device, and other ancillary facilities of generally adopt closed loop design, and ring, its structure into radial, distributed power distribution network access in power generation and power distribution system, power distribution network structure from the radial structure become more power structure, short circuit current size, direction and distribution characteristics were changed.

6. Why is photovoltaic power a green and low-carbon energy source?

Photovoltaic (pv) power generation has significant energy, environmental protection and economic benefit, is one of the most high quality green energy, under the condition of our country average sunshine install 1 mw photovoltaic power generation systems, 1 year can be sent 1200 KWH, can reduce the usage of about 400 kilograms of standard coal, coal to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from about 1 ton, according to the world wide fund for nature (WWF) the results of the study: from the effect of carbon dioxide, photovoltaic power generation system is equivalent to install 1 square meters of afforestation, 100 square meters, the current development of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic (pv) power generation is fundamentally solve the smog, acid rain, etc. One of the effective means of environmental problems.

7. How do you view the news that "a large amount of energy is consumed in the production of photovoltaic cell modules"?

Photovoltaic cells in its production process does need to consume a certain amount of energy, especially industrial silicon purification, high-purity polycrystalline silicon production, monocrystalline silicon rod/polycrystalline silicon ingot production of three links of high energy consumption, but the photovoltaic cells in 20 years of service life can continue to produce energy. It is estimated that under the average sunshine conditions in China, the energy return of the photovoltaic power generation system during its whole life period exceeds its energy consumption by more than 15 times.The energy recovery period of the 1-kilowatt rooftop photovoltaic grid-connected system installed at the optimal inclination Angle in Beijing is 1.5-2 years, far below the service life of the photovoltaic system. That is to say, the electricity produced by the photovoltaic system in the first 1.5-2 years is used to offset the energy consumed in the production process, etc., while the energy produced after 1.5-2 years is pure output. Therefore, the energy consumption of the photovoltaic cell should be evaluated from the perspective of the whole life cycle.

8. How do you view the news that "the production of photovoltaic cell modules will produce a large amount of pollution?

Photovoltaic cell component production including polysilicon, silicon ingot wafers, pv batteries and photovoltaic modules for industrial chain link, the related reports of pollution mainly refers to the raw materials, in the production of high purity polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules of byproduct of high purity polysilicon production mainly is to use the improved Siemens method, the law will metallurgical grade silicon into cross-linked with helium, in the add hydrogen reduction into solar energy polysilicon, also can form silicon chloride, the by-product of silicon tetrachloride in moist air is decomposed into silicic acid and hydrochloric acid, can produce pollution if not handled properly, but at present, China's polysilicon production enterprises to adopt the improved Siemens method can achieve closed-loop production, The by-product silicon tetrachloride and tail gas are recycled to realize clean production.In December 2010, the state issued the Access Conditions for Polycrystalline Silicon Industry, which stipulated that the recovery rate of silicon tetrachloride and chlorine gas in the reduction tail gas should not be less than 98.5% and 99%. Therefore, the mature improved Siemens production technology fully meets the requirements of environmental protection and will not cause environmental pollution.

9. How much sunlight can we use?Could it be the dominant energy source of the future?

The Earth's surface receives 10,000 times as much solar radiation as the world's energy needs. The average annual radiation received per square meter of the earth's surface ranges from 1,000 to 2,000 kWh, depending on the region. According to the International Energy Agency, installing solar photovoltaic systems on 4% of the world's deserts would be enough to meet the world's energy needs. Solar photovoltaic enjoys broad development space and its potential is very huge.

According to preliminary statistics, in China only USES the existing building installation photovoltaic its market potential is about 3 trillion kw or more, plus the western vast gobi photovoltaic market potential is about billions kilowatt above, with the technological progress and scale application of photovoltaic power generation, will further reduce the cost of power generation, become more competitive in the energy supply way, step by step from complementary energy to alternative energy sources and hopes to become a leading energy in the future.

Resources and applications

two

10. How are the solar energy resources distributed in China?

The total solar radiation resources in China are rich, and the distribution characteristics are that the plateau is larger than the plain, and the western region is larger than the eastern region, among which the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most abundant, and the Sichuan Basin is relatively low in resources.

11. What are the applications of distributed photovoltaic power generation?

Distributed photovoltaic power generation includes application forms such as grid-connected, off-grid and multi-energy complementary micro-grid. Grid-connected distributed power generation is mostly applied near users. Generally, it operates in parallel with medium and low-voltage distribution networks and is for self-use. Off-grid distributed photovoltaic power generation is mostly used in remote areas and island areas. It is not connected to the large power grid, but directly supplies power to the load using its own generation system and energy storage system.The distributed photovoltaic system can also form a multi-energy complementary micro-electric system with other power generation modes, such as water, wind, light, etc., which can either operate independently as a micro-grid or be connected to the grid.

12. Where is distributed photovoltaic power generation applicable?

The application of distributed photovoltaic power generation system can be divided into two categories:

First, it can be promoted on all kinds of buildings and public facilities nationwide to form a distributed building photovoltaic power generation system. The distributed power generation system can be established by using all kinds of local buildings and public facilities to meet part of the electricity demand of power users and provide production electricity for high-energy consuming enterprises.

Two islands, but in remote areas such as less electricity without electricity promotion, formation or micro grid off-grid power generation system, due to the gap of economic development level, our country still has a part of the rural population did not solve the problem of basic electricity, past rural electric engineering mostly depend on the extension of power grid, power supply, small hydropower and thermal power grid extension is difficult, and power supply radius is too long, can lead to the power supply quality is poorer, developing off-grid type distributed generation not only can be solved in basic electricity, electricity less electricity residents can also clean and efficient use of the local available in raw energy, effectively solve the energy and the environment between MAO dun.

13. Where are suitable locations for installing distributed photovoltaic systems?

Industrial factory building, especially in electricity consumption is bigger, the online electricity is more expensive in the factory, workshop roof area is large, usually open flat roof, suitable for installation of pv array and because of its high power load, distributed photovoltaic (pv) grid system can be done with in situ given, offset part of the online power, thereby saving the user's electricity.

Commercial buildings: similar to the effect of the industrial park, the difference is that commercial buildings more for cement roof, is more advantageous to install photovoltaic array, but usually have requirements of architectural aesthetics, according to the shopping malls, office buildings, hotels, conference center, resorts and other service industry characteristics, user load characteristic is generally characterized by higher during the day, night is low, to better match the photovoltaic properties.

Agricultural facilities: There are a large number of usable roofs in rural areas, including self-owned houses, greenhouses, fish ponds, etc. In rural areas, which are often at the end of the public power grid and have poor power quality, the construction of distributed photovoltaic system in rural areas can improve electricity security and power quality.

Municipal and other public buildings: due to unified management standards, relatively reliable user load and commercial behavior, high enthusiasm for installation, municipal and other public buildings are also suitable for distributed photovoltaic centralized continuous construction.

Remote farming and pastoral areas and islands: due to the distance from the power grid, Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia,

In remote farming and pastoral areas in provinces such as Gansu and Sichuan, as well as coastal islands in China, there are millions of people without electricity. Off-grid photovoltaic systems or micro-grid power generation systems complementary to other energy sources are suitable for application in these areas.

14. What is the distributed photovoltaic power generation system combined with buildings?

The photovoltaic grid-connected power generation combined with buildings is an important application form of distributed photovoltaic power generation at present. The technology is making rapid progress, which is mainly reflected in the installation method combined with buildings and the electrical design of building photovoltaic. According to the different installation methods combined with buildings, it can be divided into photovoltaic integration and photovoltaic building addition.

15. What is the difference between the installation of PV array on the facade of a building and the installation on the roof?

The ways of combining photovoltaic arrays with buildings can be divided into two ways: roof installation and side elevation installation. It can be said that these two installation ways are suitable for most buildings.

The roof installation forms mainly include horizontal roof, inclined roof and photovoltaic lighting roof

Among them:

Horizontal roof glazing array can be installed at the best Angle to obtain the maximum power generation, and conventional crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules can be used to reduce the module investment cost, which is usually relatively good in economy, but the aesthetics of this installation method is general.

Reveled roofs can be used to install PV arrays on roofs facing due south, southeast, southwest, east or west in the Northern Hemisphere. Reveled roofs facing due south can be installed at the best Angle or near the best Angle.

Photovoltaic lighting roof refers to in a transparent photovoltaic cells as the lighting on the top of the building components, beautiful sex is very good, and meet the needs of pervious to light, but photovoltaic lighting roof needs transparent components, module efficiency is lower, in addition to the generation of transparent, daylighting top component must satisfy certain connection construction aspects, such as mechanics, aesthetics, structure, component cost is high, the cost is high, bring construction to promote social value of the concept of green effect.

Side elevation installation mainly refers to the way of installing photovoltaic modules on the south wall and east wall of the building. For high-rise buildings, the wall is the outer surface with the largest contact area with sunlight, and the photovoltaic curtain wall is a more common application method.

16. Can agricultural greenhouses and fish ponds install distributed photovoltaic grid-connected systems?

Greenhouse warming, insulation has been a key problem in farmers, agricultural greenhouses photovoltaic (pv) is expected to solve this problem, due to the high temperature of summer in September 6 - many vegetables can't normal growth of the category, and agricultural greenhouses photovoltaic as added a spectral machine outside the agricultural greenhouses, can isolate infrared ray, prevent excessive heat in greenhouses, in winter and night and can prevent the greenhouses in red wavelengths of light outward radiation, heat preservation effect. Photovoltaic agricultural greenhouses can supply the electricity needed for lighting in agricultural greenhouses, and the remaining electricity can also be connected to the grid.

In the off-grid form of photovoltaic greenhouse, it can be mutually deployed with the LED system to protect the growth of plants during the day and generate electricity at the same time. The night LED system uses daytime electricity to provide lighting.

The photovoltaic array can also be set up in the fish pond, and the pond can continue to raise fish. The photovoltaic array can also provide a good shielding effect for fish farming, which better solves the contradiction between the development of new energy and a large amount of occupied land. Therefore, the distributed photovoltaic power generation system can be installed in agricultural greenhouses and fish ponds.

Policy paper

three

17. What is "self-use, surplus power online "?

Spontaneous electric refers to online distributed photovoltaic systems for self-use by power mainly used by power users themselves, redundant power grid, it is a kind of business model of distributed photovoltaic power generation, photovoltaic and outlets located in the user meter for this kind of operation mode of the load side, need to add a piece of photovoltaic (pv) against sending electricity metering meters or set the grid electricity meters into a two-way measurement, the user's own direct use of solar power, save electricity by way of directly enjoy sales of electricity power grid, the sending power separate measurement and settlement of a feed-in tariff.

18. What is the "photovoltaic grid benchmark price" policy?

Photovoltaic benchmark price policy is based on the present cost of photovoltaic power generation, and consider the reasonable profit after the price of electricity, solar photovoltaic power project developers at that price will be sold to the grid enterprise, the local higher desulfurization of coal fire power plant balance part of online electricity price benchmarking to entire network allocation method for grid enterprises covering, photovoltaic benchmark price policy is mainly suitable for large scale photovoltaic power station.

"China distributed photovoltaic power generation 100 questions and answers" by the Renewable Energy Institute Photoelectric Professional Committee compiled, in order to facilitate the majority of photovoltaic micro friends to read, the site Xiaobian collated the text version.

This article is the most complete version of the network visible, welcome to forward the collection!

Principle and significance

one

1. What is photovoltaic power generation?What is distributed photovoltaic power generation?

Photovoltaic power generation refers to the use of solar radiation directly into electricity generation, photovoltaic power generation is the mainstream of solar power generation, so now people often say that solar power generation is photovoltaic power generation.

Distributed power generation refers to the photovoltaic power generation facilities built near the user site, which are mainly operated for spontaneous and self-use on the user side. The surplus electricity is connected to the Internet, but the distribution system is characterized by balance adjustment.

Distributed power generation follows the original test of adjusting measures to local conditions, clean and efficient, decentralized layout and nearby utilization, and makes full use of local solar energy resources to replace and reduce fossil energy consumption.

2. Do you know the historical origin of photovoltaic power generation?

In 1839, the 19-year-old French Henri Becquerel was doing physical experiments, and found that the current would be strengthened when two metal electrodes in the conductive liquid were irradiated with light, thus finding the "photovoltaic effect". In 1930, Langge first proposed using the "photovoltaic effect" to make solar cells, which turn the sun's energy into electricity.

In 1932, Odubote and Stolla made the first "cadmium sulfide" solar cell.

In 1941, Aldoo discovered the photovoltaic effect on silicon.

In May 1954, the United States bell LABS bing, fuller and peel loosen the efficiency as 6% of monocrystalline silicon solar cells, and this is the first in the world have the practical value of solar cells, and for the first time in the same year wake found nickel arsenide photovoltaic effect, and deposited nickel sulfide bo film on glass, made the solar cell, the sun's rays into electricity practical photovoltaic power generation technology was born and developed.

3. How do photovoltaic cells generate electricity?

Photovoltaic cell is a kind of light, electricity transformation characteristics of semiconductor devices, it directly convert solar radiation into direct current, is the most basic unit of photovoltaic power generation, electrical characteristics of pv cell characteristic is using and incorporating some elements in the crystalline silicon (such as phosphorus and boron, etc.), thereby having a permanent in material molecular charge imbalance, the formation of semiconductor materials with special performance, under the sun with special electrical produces free charge in the semiconductor, the directional movement and free charge accumulation, which generate electricity when it closed at both ends, a phenomenon known as "photovoltaic effect" referred to as the photovoltaic effect.

4. What are the components of a photovoltaic power generation system?

The photovoltaic power generation system is composed of photovoltaic phalanx (photovoltaic phalanx is composed of photovoltaic modules in series and parallel), controller, battery pack, DC/AC inverter and other parts. Core parts of photovoltaic power generation system is photovoltaic modules, and pv modules is packaged by photovoltaic cells and in series, in parallel, it will be the sun's light energy into electrical energy directly, photovoltaic modules generate electricity for direct current (dc), we can use them with inverter can also converted into alternating current use, from another point of view for photovoltaic system can generate electricity namely hair box, also can use the energy storage device such as battery energy storage, free to use at any time according to need.

5. What is a distribution network?What is the relationship between distribution network and distributed photovoltaic power generation?

Power plants to accept electricity from the grid or regions, by assigning or distribution facilities in situ according to voltage level assigned to each kind of user network, is made up of overhead line, cable, tower, power distribution transformer, isolating switch, reactive power compensation capacitance, metering device, and other ancillary facilities of generally adopt closed loop design, and ring, its structure into radial, distributed power distribution network access in power generation and power distribution system, power distribution network structure from the radial structure become more power structure, short circuit current size, direction and distribution characteristics were changed.

6. Why is photovoltaic power a green and low-carbon energy source?

Photovoltaic (pv) power generation has significant energy, environmental protection and economic benefit, is one of the most high quality green energy, under the condition of our country average sunshine install 1 mw photovoltaic power generation systems, 1 year can be sent 1200 KWH, can reduce the usage of about 400 kilograms of standard coal, coal to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from about 1 ton, according to the world wide fund for nature (WWF) the results of the study: from the effect of carbon dioxide, photovoltaic power generation system is equivalent to install 1 square meters of afforestation, 100 square meters, the current development of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic (pv) power generation is fundamentally solve the smog, acid rain, etc. One of the effective means of environmental problems.

7. How do you view the news that "a large amount of energy is consumed in the production of photovoltaic cell modules"?

Photovoltaic cells in its production process does need to consume a certain amount of energy, especially industrial silicon purification, high-purity polycrystalline silicon production, monocrystalline silicon rod/polycrystalline silicon ingot production of three links of high energy consumption, but the photovoltaic cells in 20 years of service life can continue to produce energy. It is estimated that under the average sunshine conditions in China, the energy return of the photovoltaic power generation system during its whole life period exceeds its energy consumption by more than 15 times.The energy recovery period of the 1-kilowatt rooftop photovoltaic grid-connected system installed at the optimal inclination Angle in Beijing is 1.5-2 years, far below the service life of the photovoltaic system. That is to say, the electricity produced by the photovoltaic system in the first 1.5-2 years is used to offset the energy consumed in the production process, etc., while the energy produced after 1.5-2 years is pure output. Therefore, the energy consumption of the photovoltaic cell should be evaluated from the perspective of the whole life cycle.

8. How do you view the news that "the production of photovoltaic cell modules will produce a large amount of pollution?

Photovoltaic cell component production including polysilicon, silicon ingot wafers, pv batteries and photovoltaic modules for industrial chain link, the related reports of pollution mainly refers to the raw materials, in the production of high purity polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules of byproduct of high purity polysilicon production mainly is to use the improved Siemens method, the law will metallurgical grade silicon into cross-linked with helium, in the add hydrogen reduction into solar energy polysilicon, also can form silicon chloride, the by-product of silicon tetrachloride in moist air is decomposed into silicic acid and hydrochloric acid, can produce pollution if not handled properly, but at present, China's polysilicon production enterprises to adopt the improved Siemens method can achieve closed-loop production, The by-product silicon tetrachloride and tail gas are recycled to realize clean production.In December 2010, the state issued the Access Conditions for Polycrystalline Silicon Industry, which stipulated that the recovery rate of silicon tetrachloride and chlorine gas in the reduction tail gas should not be less than 98.5% and 99%. Therefore, the mature improved Siemens production technology fully meets the requirements of environmental protection and will not cause environmental pollution.

9. How much sunlight can we use?Could it be the dominant energy source of the future?

The Earth's surface receives 10,000 times as much solar radiation as the world's energy needs. The average annual radiation received per square meter of the earth's surface ranges from 1,000 to 2,000 kWh, depending on the region. According to the International Energy Agency, installing solar photovoltaic systems on 4% of the world's deserts would be enough to meet the world's energy needs. Solar photovoltaic enjoys broad development space and its potential is very huge.

According to preliminary statistics, in China only USES the existing building installation photovoltaic its market potential is about 3 trillion kw or more, plus the western vast gobi photovoltaic market potential is about billions kilowatt above, with the technological progress and scale application of photovoltaic power generation, will further reduce the cost of power generation, become more competitive in the energy supply way, step by step from complementary energy to alternative energy sources and hopes to become a leading energy in the future.

Resources and applications

two

10. How are the solar energy resources distributed in China?

The total solar radiation resources in China are rich, and the distribution characteristics are that the plateau is larger than the plain, and the western region is larger than the eastern region, among which the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most abundant, and the Sichuan Basin is relatively low in resources.

11. What are the applications of distributed photovoltaic power generation?

Distributed photovoltaic power generation includes application forms such as grid-connected, off-grid and multi-energy complementary micro-grid. Grid-connected distributed power generation is mostly applied near users. Generally, it operates in parallel with medium and low-voltage distribution networks and is for self-use. Off-grid distributed photovoltaic power generation is mostly used in remote areas and island areas. It is not connected to the large power grid, but directly supplies power to the load using its own generation system and energy storage system.The distributed photovoltaic system can also form a multi-energy complementary micro-electric system with other power generation modes, such as water, wind, light, etc., which can either operate independently as a micro-grid or be connected to the grid.

12. Where is distributed photovoltaic power generation applicable?

The application of distributed photovoltaic power generation system can be divided into two categories:

First, it can be promoted on all kinds of buildings and public facilities nationwide to form a distributed building photovoltaic power generation system. The distributed power generation system can be established by using all kinds of local buildings and public facilities to meet part of the electricity demand of power users and provide production electricity for high-energy consuming enterprises.

Two islands, but in remote areas such as less electricity without electricity promotion, formation or micro grid off-grid power generation system, due to the gap of economic development level, our country still has a part of the rural population did not solve the problem of basic electricity, past rural electric engineering mostly depend on the extension of power grid, power supply, small hydropower and thermal power grid extension is difficult, and power supply radius is too long, can lead to the power supply quality is poorer, developing off-grid type distributed generation not only can be solved in basic electricity, electricity less electricity residents can also clean and efficient use of the local available in raw energy, effectively solve the energy and the environment between MAO dun.

13. Where are suitable locations for installing distributed photovoltaic systems?

Industrial factory building, especially in electricity consumption is bigger, the online electricity is more expensive in the factory, workshop roof area is large, usually open flat roof, suitable for installation of pv array and because of its high power load, distributed photovoltaic (pv) grid system can be done with in situ given, offset part of the online power, thereby saving the user's electricity.

Commercial buildings: similar to the effect of the industrial park, the difference is that commercial buildings more for cement roof, is more advantageous to install photovoltaic array, but usually have requirements of architectural aesthetics, according to the shopping malls, office buildings, hotels, conference center, resorts and other service industry characteristics, user load characteristic is generally characterized by higher during the day, night is low, to better match the photovoltaic properties.

Agricultural facilities: There are a large number of usable roofs in rural areas, including self-owned houses, greenhouses, fish ponds, etc. In rural areas, which are often at the end of the public power grid and have poor power quality, the construction of distributed photovoltaic system in rural areas can improve electricity security and power quality.

Municipal and other public buildings: due to unified management standards, relatively reliable user load and commercial behavior, high enthusiasm for installation, municipal and other public buildings are also suitable for distributed photovoltaic centralized continuous construction.

Remote farming and pastoral areas and islands: due to the distance from the power grid, Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia,

In remote farming and pastoral areas in provinces such as Gansu and Sichuan, as well as coastal islands in China, there are millions of people without electricity. Off-grid photovoltaic systems or micro-grid power generation systems complementary to other energy sources are suitable for application in these areas.

14. What is the distributed photovoltaic power generation system combined with buildings?

The photovoltaic grid-connected power generation combined with buildings is an important application form of distributed photovoltaic power generation at present. The technology is making rapid progress, which is mainly reflected in the installation method combined with buildings and the electrical design of building photovoltaic. According to the different installation methods combined with buildings, it can be divided into photovoltaic integration and photovoltaic building addition.

15. What is the difference between the installation of PV array on the facade of a building and the installation on the roof?

The ways of combining photovoltaic arrays with buildings can be divided into two ways: roof installation and side elevation installation. It can be said that these two installation ways are suitable for most buildings.

The roof installation forms mainly include horizontal roof, inclined roof and photovoltaic lighting roof

Among them:

Horizontal roof glazing array can be installed at the best Angle to obtain the maximum power generation, and conventional crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules can be used to reduce the module investment cost, which is usually relatively good in economy, but the aesthetics of this installation method is general.

Reveled roofs can be used to install PV arrays on roofs facing due south, southeast, southwest, east or west in the Northern Hemisphere. Reveled roofs facing due south can be installed at the best Angle or near the best Angle.

Photovoltaic lighting roof refers to in a transparent photovoltaic cells as the lighting on the top of the building components, beautiful sex is very good, and meet the needs of pervious to light, but photovoltaic lighting roof needs transparent components, module efficiency is lower, in addition to the generation of transparent, daylighting top component must satisfy certain connection construction aspects, such as mechanics, aesthetics, structure, component cost is high, the cost is high, bring construction to promote social value of the concept of green effect.

Side elevation installation mainly refers to the way of installing photovoltaic modules on the south wall and east wall of the building. For high-rise buildings, the wall is the outer surface with the largest contact area with sunlight, and the photovoltaic curtain wall is a more common application method.

16. Can agricultural greenhouses and fish ponds install distributed photovoltaic grid-connected systems?

Greenhouse warming, insulation has been a key problem in farmers, agricultural greenhouses photovoltaic (pv) is expected to solve this problem, due to the high temperature of summer in September 6 - many vegetables can't normal growth of the category, and agricultural greenhouses photovoltaic as added a spectral machine outside the agricultural greenhouses, can isolate infrared ray, prevent excessive heat in greenhouses, in winter and night and can prevent the greenhouses in red wavelengths of light outward radiation, heat preservation effect. Photovoltaic agricultural greenhouses can supply the electricity needed for lighting in agricultural greenhouses, and the remaining electricity can also be connected to the grid.

In the off-grid form of photovoltaic greenhouse, it can be mutually deployed with the LED system to protect the growth of plants during the day and generate electricity at the same time. The night LED system uses daytime electricity to provide lighting.

The photovoltaic array can also be set up in the fish pond, and the pond can continue to raise fish. The photovoltaic array can also provide a good shielding effect for fish farming, which better solves the contradiction between the development of new energy and a large amount of occupied land. Therefore, the distributed photovoltaic power generation system can be installed in agricultural greenhouses and fish ponds.

Policy paper

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17. What is "self-use, surplus power online "?

Spontaneous electric refers to online distributed photovoltaic systems for self-use by power mainly used by power users themselves, redundant power grid, it is a kind of business model of distributed photovoltaic power generation, photovoltaic and outlets located in the user meter for this kind of operation mode of the load side, need to add a piece of photovoltaic (pv) against sending electricity metering meters or set the grid electricity meters into a two-way measurement, the user's own direct use of solar power, save electricity by way of directly enjoy sales of electricity power grid, the sending power separate measurement and settlement of a feed-in tariff.

18. What is the "photovoltaic grid benchmark price" policy?

Photovoltaic benchmark price policy is based on the present cost of photovoltaic power generation, and consider the reasonable profit after the price of electricity, solar photovoltaic power project developers at that price will be sold to the grid enterprise, the local higher desulfurization of coal fire power plant balance part of online electricity price benchmarking to entire network allocation method for grid enterprises covering, photovoltaic benchmark price policy is mainly suitable for large scale photovoltaic power station.

19. What is the "unit electricity quota subsidy" policy?

Unit power electricity subsidy policy norm subsidy policy referred to as "degrees, is according to photovoltaic system's electricity subsidies, mainly is suitable for the distributed photovoltaic generating system, distributed generation USES electricity subsidy policy is characterized by spontaneous for private use, surplus electricity to the Internet, namely spontaneous for photovoltaic power don't do the deal, according to the state electricity give subsidies, the surplus electricity in addition to the power grid enterprise online payment of the desulfurization of coal fire power unit online electricity price benchmarking also enjoy subsidies of KWH.

20. Is the subsidy for "self-use" electricity and "surplus electricity" electricity the same?

At present, the national policy of distributed photovoltaic power generation to take the way of unit electricity quota subsidy, that is, the photovoltaic system of all the power generation are subsidized, so whether it is spontaneous and self-consumption of electricity or residual electricity online are subsidized according to the same standard.

21. Are distributed PV subsidies the same in different fields?

Encourage all kinds of power users, investment companies, professional contract energy management services to companies and individuals as a unit investment projects such as the construction and operation of distributed photovoltaic power generation project, for distributed photovoltaic power generation is adopt to all distributed quota subsidies for solar power, so the pv KWH earnings directly affected by household electricity price level, commercial and industrial electricity price in 0.8 to 1.4 yuan per degree, industrial electricity price in 0.6 0.8 yuan each, utilities electricity price in 0.5 0.6 yuan each, Government schools, hospitals, public institutions, agriculture and residential electricity only 0.3-0.5 yuan per kilowatt hour. Therefore, the use of unit electricity quota subsidy for distributed photovoltaic projects installed in different buildings or power users has different benefits, which requires developers to judge and decide whether the projects are cost-effective.

22. Which departments should be consulted about the policies of distributed photovoltaic power generation?

About distributed photovoltaic related policy should be consulting municipal departments at the county level, the power administrative department under the State Council to encourage the municipal or county level department in charge of energy combined with local actual, establishment and grid access application, online debugging and acceptance, electricity and subsidies and settlement for the combination of distributed photovoltaic power generation project for the record, and completion inspection and acceptance of one-stop service system, simplify the process, improve the efficiency of management.

23. How can users get electricity subsidies from the state?

Power grid enterprises shall be responsible for guiding and cooperating with project units to carry out grid-connected operation and acceptance of distributed photovoltaic power generation projects, and sign purchase and sale contracts with project units. Power grid enterprises shall measure the total power generation and on-grid electricity of distributed projects respectively.

The distributed power generation project shall be subsidized according to the amount of electricity. Power grid enterprises shall settle the on-grid electricity fee with the project unit in accordance with the on-grid electricity price prescribed by the state, and transfer the national subsidy funds to the project unit for all the electricity generated by the project unit on a monthly basis in accordance with the electricity subsidy policy prescribed by the state.

24. In what way will the distributed photovoltaic power subsidy fund be distributed to the owners?

Users from the grid electricity purchasing implementation of normal electricity price policy, redundant photovoltaic power generation to get to the Internet, the power grid enterprises shall, according to the local coal fire electricity price benchmarking for desulphurization acquisition, distributed photovoltaic power generation project output can meet the electric power project corresponding to the user's demand, power grid enterprises must like general electric power users shall bear the liability of power supply.

Photovoltaic power generation project can be build by electricity users, also can use contract energy management mode, and power users should be in accordance with the contract energy management enterprise of contract energy management regulations of the state energy services agreement, users of photovoltaic system construction since the power consumption is not a deal, for the project owners to install photovoltaic power in other power users on the roof for private use, by the project owner and power users shall be carried out in accordance with the contract energy management agreement and settlement.

The power generation of the photovoltaic system shall be measured and counted by the power grid enterprise, and all the power generation of the photovoltaic system shall be subsidized by the national electricity quota. The power grid enterprise shall transfer the national subsidy funds according to the settlement cycle according to the measurement data of the photovoltaic power and the subsidy standard stipulated by the state per kilowatt hour.

Application process for grid-connection

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25. How to apply for distributed photovoltaic grid-connected power generation system access to the grid company?

Distributed project owners in preparing miss information cities or counties to the power grid company customer submit an application for access to the wireless center, customer service center to assist the project owner to fill in the access to the application form, access to apply for acceptance within the time commitment, in the power grid company after customer service center will inform the project owner to confirm access system scheme, the owner after the completion of the project to the customer service center to apply for grid acceptance and commissioning, power grid enterprises will complete the installation of electric energy metering device, 购售 electrical contract and scheduling agreement is signed, hooked up to the acceptance and commissioning work, after the project can be connected to the grid.

26. What if the electricity doesn't run out?How to sell PV surplus electricity to the grid?

After signing the relevant agreement with the power grid company for the on-grid electricity, the power grid company shall measure the unused on-grid electricity, and pay it to the project owner in a timely manner according to the price and subsidy standard stipulated by the state in accordance with the electricity bill settlement cycle.

27. Is there any charge for access to distributed systems?What information do individuals and enterprises need to apply for distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system, and what is the process?

Power grid companies shall not charge any fees for the acceptance of grid-connection applicants, the formulation of access system schemes, the review of access system engineering design, the installation of metering devices, the signing of contracts and agreements, the acceptance and commissioning of grid-connection, and the measurement and settlement services subsidized by the government.

Natural persons and legal persons who apply for grid connection of distributed photovoltaic power generation need the following information respectively:

To apply for a natural person, legal supporting documents such as ID card and photocopy of the person in charge, household registration book and property ownership certificate should be provided

Legal application shall provide the agent id original and photocopy and legal person entrusted book (or the legal representative id original and photocopy), business license for enterprise law, land card legitimacy support files, the government investment projects such as agreed to by the competent department of the approval of the antecedent work of project (need to approve projects), pre-project related information.

28. What issues do distributed photovoltaic systems need to be connected to the grid?

The grid connection of distributed photovoltaic system needs to consider the issues of safety, photovoltaic configuration, measurement and settlement. In terms of safety, whether the dot switch meets the safety requirements, and whether the safety of equipment in the case of abnormal or fault in the grid can be disconnected reliably in the case of power failure in the grid to ensure personal safety.

In terms of photovoltaic configuration, the configuration of photovoltaic capacity, the selection of main equipment, the selection of access points, the realization of system monitoring and control function, the configuration and installation of anti-islanders, etc.

In terms of metering and settlement, billing and settlement method, feed-in price, materials, data and procedures needed to obtain electricity price subsidy, etc.

29. How can I get the support of the property management in the community and the consent of the neighbors to install the photovoltaic power generation system by myself?

At present, the problem of property right is an important problem to solve, to provide other owners, property, residential committee agreed to prove, including the unit of all the neighbors of the book face to face signature and residential property, industry committee agreed to the proof, and stamped by the community residential committee.

30. If the power grid outages or other failures occur, can the distribution function normally?

Grid blackouts, distributed photovoltaic power generation systems usually run out, can't normal power, but in some extreme cases there may be an island phenomenon, namely power grid blackout after the distributed generation system with partial load to continue running, affect the maintenance staff personal safety, and exist meteorite bad home appliances and the possibility of power grid, so distributed system must have the island function.

31. Does the local power company have special personnel to accept applications for grid-connection of distributed photovoltaic systems? What is the contact hotline?

State grid corporation to provide customer service center for grid-connected distributed, 95598 channels, and other consulting service hotline online business hall, to the project owners to provide online transaction process, want to shut policy explanation, such as grid work progress query service, application of distributed photovoltaic (pv) grid can be handled by local power company customer service center consulting, also can contact national grid service hotline for consultation.

32. What is a turnkey project?

For engineering design, procurement, construction general contracting, finally handed over to run directly referred to as a turnkey project, similar to usually say the meaning of the general contractor, for the users of distributed photovoltaic power generation project reporting for the project according to the on-site investigation and determine the access plan, engineering design and equipment selection, construction and completion inspection and acceptance, the scene of parallel debugging, grid generation process, providing full services, receive directly with the whole project, immediately put into operation, called a turn-key project.

Project Management

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33. How to manage distributed photovoltaic power generation projects?

Distributed photovoltaic power administrative department under the State Council to be responsible for the planning, guidance, supervision and administration department in charge of local energy in the energy of the State Council departments responsible for the area under the guidance of distributed power generation project construction and supervision, entrust a national solar power technology to manage the unit to undertake technology, information and engineering quality control work.

34. Why do distributed photovoltaic power generation projects need to be recorded? Can construction begin on projects that do not require state subsidies?

Current distributed generation still need state subsidies, assume that every year 6 million kilowatts of distributed generation, annual output 7 billion degrees, at least if subsidies to 0.42 yuan per kilowatt-hour need billions of yuan, in order to optimize the distribution of subsidies, the record is a must, distributed generation projects by the municipal or county level a filing by the competent department of energy management, if the project does not need to state subsidies, can be directly after a filing management can start construction.

35. How to record distributed photovoltaic power generation project and what materials should be prepared?

When a project unit submits a fixed asset investment record form and an application form for distributed power generation project record to the prefecture-level or county-level energy administrative department, the following materials shall be included:

(1) The project scheme complying with the relevant regulations on the installation of photovoltaic power generation systems in buildings and other facilities

(2) Use certificate of project land or roof and other places

(3) Project grid-connection access opinions issued by prefecture-level or county-level power grid companies

(4) If contract energy management is adopted in the project, materials such as energy service management contract signed with power users shall be provided

(5) Other materials required by the local government in accordance with relevant regulations

36. Under what circumstances may record failure or invalidation occur?

Prefecture or county level department in charge of energy in the project for the record the acceptance of the completed for record within 10 working days from the date of audit and audit opinion to inform project units, when applying to project annual cumulative size beyond the region to guide, the local department in charge of energy release notice, stopped accepting project applications, term of validity of a distributed power generation project for the record if no special reason is not completed and put into operation, project filing void automatically.

37. Can I apply for changes to projects that have been recorded? How to change it?

In general, the projects that have been recorded cannot be changed at will. If the scheme must be changed due to special circumstances during the implementation of the project, the application for scheme change must be made in accordance with the original application procedure.

38. How to define the individual (home) installation of distributed photovoltaic power generation system?What are the preferential policies?

Power users, investment enterprises, professional contract energy service companies and individuals are encouraged to invest in the construction and operation of distributed photovoltaic power generation projects as project units.

Spontaneous for individual installation of distributed photovoltaic project in principle, more electricity to the Internet, power adjustment, we adopted for self-use photovoltaic power, automatic offset grid electricity, not to trade, to spare the Internet photovoltaic power grid companies to local desulfurization of coal price benchmarking buy-outs, individual as a single project construction of distributed photovoltaic facilities installed scale of project organizer in principle is not greater than 30 kw, the provinces have a visual is simplified by the competent department of energy project management.

Design and Installation

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39. What are the components of distributed grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system?

The distributed photovoltaic power generation system consists of photovoltaic modules, grid-connected photovoltaic inverters and bidirectional metering electricity meters.

40. How can I obtain local data on solar energy resources?

The first and most critical step in PV system design is to analyze the solar energy resources and related meteorological data of the project installation and use site. Meteorological data, such as local solar radiation, precipitation and wind speed, are key data to design the system.Weather data from any location around the world is currently available free of charge as part of NASA's weather database.

41. How to select the grid-connected voltage of distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system?

The grid-connected voltage of the distributed photovoltaic system is mainly determined by the installed capacity of the system, and the specific grid-connected voltage needs to be decided according to the approval of the access system of the power grid company. Generally, AC220V is used for household use and AC380V or 10KV can be used for commercial use.

42. What determines the installation inclination of photovoltaic arrays?

The installation inclination of photovoltaic array is generally determined by the latitude of the installation site. The following table gives the dimension values and installation inclination of major cities in China.

43. How to determine the installation orientation of PV arrays?What is the effect on power generation?

Since the main reason that affects the photovoltaic power generation is the amount of sunshine, the modules should be installed in the direction with the most sunlight. Different installation angles also have an impact on the power generation of photovoltaic modules.

44. How to select PV modules?

According to the actual circumstances of the installation site can choose different types of pv modules, decided to site the effective use of space for installation of the specifications of the component size, want to install a larger capacity per unit area can choose efficient components, according to the appearance of the existing buildings can also choose different frame components, according to the scene of the series parallel connection mode fixed components of joint length, the choice of the components should be considered with installation area, capacity, cost and other factors, letter in general should choose good is good, good quality and have certification, good quality after-sales service, has the fire certification component products.

45. How to choose inverter?

Generally, according to the requirements of the system, the corresponding power section of the inverter is configured. The power of the selected inverter should match the maximum power of the photovoltaic cell array. Generally, the rated output power of the photovoltaic inverter is about the same as the total input power, which can save costs.

46. How to consider the color, transmittance, size and shape of photovoltaic modules for distributed photovoltaic power generation projects integrated with buildings?

In terms of color, we can try our best to choose the color similar to that of the building. For light transmission, we should consider making full use of the space and area of the building, rationally choosing the size and shape, doing a good job of balance and optimization, and professional technical design.

47. Should wind speed be taken into account in the design and installation of photovoltaic arrays?How should building load and wind resistance requirements be considered when installing distributed PV?

Photovoltaic array installed on the roof of a building, it is necessary to consider the load of the building roof, at the same time considering the airflow in the turbulent flow and speed after the building changes impact on the safety of the pv array, only give full consideration to the local wind conditions, landforms, terrain, and plan to install a photovoltaic array of the relative position of the buildings in the surrounding environment, to ensure the safety of the pv array and the surrounding life and property.

48. How to determine the installation capacity of a household PV system?

The size of installed capacity of household photovoltaic power generation system depends on the load of electrical equipment, roof style and roof area, and in combination with the approval opinions of the power grid company, the optimal installation capacity is determined. Under normal circumstances, the installation amount of flat roof is about 70 watts \ per square meter.

49. How to estimate the power generation of distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system?

To estimate the generation capacity of a photovoltaic system, it is necessary to know the effective sunshine time, system efficiency and system installation capacity of the place where the system is installed. You can also consult with the installation of photovoltaic systems to get more accurate power generation.

50. After the distributed photovoltaic power generation system is connected to the grid, how to tell the current electricity used in your home comes from the grid or your own solar cell module?

After the installation of the distributed generation system, the grid company will carry out grid-connected inspection and acceptance. After passing the inspection, two meters (or two-way meters) will be installed in the owner's home. The two meters will independently measure the power generation of the photovoltaic system and the electricity consumption of the municipal electricity.

51. Will the photovoltaic power generation system work if it is continuously rainy or foggy after installation? Will there be a power shortage or blackout?

Photovoltaic cell components under certain weak light also can generate electricity, but due to the continuous rain fog or haze weather, the sun radiation intensity of illumination is low, the working voltage of photovoltaic system if not up to the start voltage of the inverter, the system will not work, grid generation system and the distribution network is parallel operation, when the pv system cannot meet the demand of load without work, the grid electricity will be automatically added to come over, there is no lack of electricity and power outages.

52. Is there a power shortage in winter when it's cold?

Photovoltaic generating system is affected, a direct impact on power factor is the irradiation intensity and sunshine duration and the working temperature of solar cell components, unavoidably irradiation intensity is weak in winter, the city will be short, generally capacity is relatively less in summer, it is also very normal phenomenon, distributed photovoltaic power generation and power grid and grid connected, as long as there is electricity grid family electric power shortage and the load will not happen.

53. Will distributed photovoltaic access affect power quality?

Power quality refers to the quality of electric energy in the power system. The main AC/DC conversion component of the system is the inverter. The inverter will not be put into use until it passes the test of the power quality tester, so it will not affect the power quality.

54. Can the electricity generated by the day distributed photovoltaic system be stored for use as night lighting?

Can be distributed generation system, by the electricity stored during the day as night lighting, it need to add the controller and batteries and other electrical components, photovoltaic power of daytime controller will stored in the storage battery, controller will release the stored power battery at night for the use of lighting, in the case of the energy storage equipment, if the power grid system will stop working, but if change the grid inverter to intelligent network micro inverter (mixed grid and off-grid inverter), the system can still run properly.


55. Is there any need for additional wiring to install a PV system on an existing building?How to connect to an existing electrical system in your home?

The circuit of the photovoltaic system is divided into DC part and AC part. The two parts of the circuit need to be wired separately. The AC part needs to be connected with the power grid, and the dot is located at the user side of the electricity meter, and finally it is connected with the existing electrical system in the user's home.

56. Where are the monitoring devices of distributed grid-connected photovoltaic systems located? Will they occupy valuable indoor space?

The monitoring devices of distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system are divided into large photovoltaic power station monitoring, off-grid photovoltaic roof system monitoring and household roof photovoltaic system monitoring. Photovoltaic monitoring system can be installed outside, do not take up interior space, it in a variety of hardware products and related accessories for photovoltaic system can be implemented in each link of data acquisition, data transmission to the remote service platform for related data storage and analysis, finally to graph report forms to the user feedback system operation.

57. What information should the design engineer provide when designing the system according to the requirements of the customer?

System design to the customer required to provide the data is divided into strong options and option parts, will be options section includes project installation locations, year of building environment, building construction, roof type, load, access to the voltage level and roof photos, optional part includes the average monthly electricity consumption, roof plate structure, CAD drawings, roof surface situation, pictures of the meter box, etc., of course optional part to fill out the more detailed, the more reasonable to optimize design, better improve the capacity.

58. After the system is built, which party will accept the system?What should be paid attention to during acceptance?

The acceptance is mainly organized and carried out by power grid enterprises, focusing on grid-connected electrical performance, construction quality of the project, component certification, inverter certification and technical parameters, lightning grounding, fire safety, component fire certification, etc.

59. How does the installation process work?

The installation process of the distributed photovoltaic grid-connected power generation system is: the construction of the foundation, the installation of the bracket, the installation of the components, the installation of the bus box, the inverter, the distribution cabinet and other electrical equipment, the installation of the connection line, the installation of the grid access system and the installation of the metering device.

60. What electrical safety requirements do you need to pay attention to during installation?Can leakage produce dangerous eyelid to person?

As long as there is sunshine, photovoltaic modules will have electricity, so can't cut off power supply when it's sunny, and accumulation, and because the combination of voltage corresponding to the voltage can be higher, so the installation process should strictly abide by the system provider of installation instructions, performed by professional installation personnel, equipment should be used in the connection part of the professional fittings for installation, protection grade reaches IP65, electrical equipment also has the air switch,

61. How to meet the requirements of building heat insulation and sound insulation when distributed photovoltaic is combined with buildings? Whether can affect indoor daylighting?

1. Different glass materials and structures are used to control heat insulation and sound insulation. The indoor noise of distributed system equipment is determined by the agreement between the user and the manufacturer to meet the needs of the majority of users.

2. Different batteries and arrangement methods are used to adjust the light transmittance. Daylighting areas will be set aside when distributed and combined with buildings, which will not affect indoor daylighting.

62. How does the photovoltaic power generation combined with the building protect against lightning?

Lightning is mainly divided into two kinds of hazards, direct lightning and indirect lightning.

Direct lightning protection: in tall buildings to set up metal lightning protection wire into the ground, can be a huge thunderstorm cloud charge release.

Protection of inductive lightning;Lightning protection device is added in the photovoltaic system, that is, lightning protection module is installed in the confluence box, inverter and other electrical equipment to protect the indirect lightning strike.

63. What is a two-way meter?Why two-way meters?

Two-way measuring watt-hour meter is able to measure electricity watt-hour meter and power generation, power and electricity are direction, from the perspective of electricity, power consumption is counted as power or directly power, power is negative or negative electricity power, the instrument can be read forward power and reverse capacity respectively and will power data stored.

Two-way meters installed photovoltaic reason is due to the electricity in existence can't all be user consumption, while the rest of the electricity needed to power grid, electric meter need to measure a number, cannot satisfy the user requirements in photovoltaic power generation, it need to measure the other Numbers, ordinary single block table cannot meet the requirements, so you need to use smart meters with two-way electric meter measuring functions.

Operation and Maintenance

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64. What are the common failures of distributed photovoltaic systems?What are the typical problems that can occur with system components?

Because the voltage does not reach the starting set value, the inverter can not work, can not start, because of the components or inverter causes low power generation, the system components may appear typical problems including junction box burning, component local burning.

65. How to deal with common failures of distributed photovoltaic systems?

When the system has problems during the warranty period, you can first call the installer or operator to explain the system problems. The installer or operator maintenance committee will answer the problems according to the user's description. If the problem cannot be solved, special personnel will be sent to the site for maintenance.

66. What is the life span of a distributed photovoltaic system?

The design life of photovoltaic power generation system without battery is generally 20-25 years.

67. How to reduce the maintenance cost of photovoltaic power generation system?

It is suggested that the selected system components and materials have good reputation and good after-sales service in the market, and qualified products can reduce the incidence of failure. Users should strictly abide by the operating manual of the system products, and carry out regular testing and cleaning maintenance of the system.

68. How to handle the post-maintenance of the system and how often to maintain it?How to maintain?

According to the product suppliers to periodically check the instructions for the use of maintenance, system maintenance work is largely wipe components, and the larger areas generally do not need artificial water to wipe, clean the rain season about 1 months time, heavy larger area can increase the number of clean, snow area and remove the thick snow, avoid affecting the capacity and snow melt after the uneven, clear in time the shade trees or clutter.

69. When cleaning photovoltaic modules, do I just wash them with water and simply wipe them? Can you have the danger of electric shock when wiping with water?

Wipe components in order to avoid in high temperature and strong sunlight on personal electric shock damage and possible damage to the component, suggest that in the morning or late afternoon cleaning component, advice when clean glass surface photovoltaic components with a soft brush, gentle clean water, clean is used when the smaller efforts, in order to avoid damage to the glass surface, with coated glass components should pay attention to avoid damage to the glass layer.

70. How to properly utilize downtime for maintenance?

Maintain the system in the morning or evening when the light is weak and the system is not in operation. Take protective measures before maintenance, including insulating gloves and insulating tools.

71. How to find out whether a PV module in a PV array has a fault array?

When users found at the same time system capacity decreases or the same as the adjacent to install power system, compared the system there may be exceptions, the user can through the monitoring data of abnormal fluctuations in the junction box to find whether a component failure in the pv array, and then contact professionals with pliers type table, thermal imager and other specialized equipment to diagnose system, ultimately determine the problem of component in the system.

72. Will shadows, leaves or even bird droppings on the PV modules affect the power generation system?

Photovoltaic modules on building shadow, the leaves, and even guano shelter on power systems may be relatively large, the influence of each component of the solar cell used electrical characteristics, otherwise will be in bad performance or obscured batteries have a so-called hot spots effect, obscured in a tandem solar cell components will be as other light load consumption of energy generated by the solar cell components, obscured the sun battery components at this time will be fever, this is the phenomenon of thermal effect, the phenomenon of serious cases can damage solar components, in order to avoid a series branch of hot spot need to add the bypass diode on the photovoltaic modules, In order to prevent hot spots in the series circuit, DC insurance should be installed on each PV group string. Even if there is no hot spot effect and solar cell shielding, the power generation will be affected.

73. In order to prevent photovoltaic modules from being hit by heavy objects, is it possible to install wire protection nets on photovoltaic arrays?

The installation of wire mesh is not recommended as the addition of wire mesh along the PV array may cause local shading of the modules and form a hot spot effect, which affects the power generation efficiency of the entire PV plant. In addition, as qualified photovoltaic modules have passed the puck impact test, the impact in general will not affect the performance of the modules.

74. Under the hot sun, is it necessary to replace the damaged fragile components immediately?

It can not be replaced immediately. If the replacement is recommended in the morning or late afternoon, the operation and maintenance personnel of the power station should be contacted in time for the replacement by professional personnel.

75. Do I need to disconnect the photovoltaic system in thunderstorm weather?

Distributed photovoltaic power generation systems are equipped with lightning protection, so there is no need to disconnect.In order to ensure safety, it is recommended to disconnect the circuit breaker switch of the junction box and cut off the circuit connection with the photovoltaic module to avoid the direct lightning damage which can not be removed by the lightning protection module. Operation and maintenance personnel should timely detect the performance of the lightning protection module to avoid the damage caused by the failure of the lightning protection module.

76. Do I need to clean up the PV system after snow?How to deal with photovoltaic modules after snow melting and freezing in winter? Can I step on a component and clean it up?

Snow back if there is a heavy snow accumulation on the component is need to clean, can use soft items will be pushed down snow, be careful not to cut glass, the component has a certain bearing, but cannot be trample on the component cleaning, will cause the component concealed damage, affecting the service life of components, the general advice don't wait to be too thick snow in cleaning, in order to avoid excessive ice components.

77. Can distributed photovoltaic power generation systems resist hail?

Qualified modules in grid-connected PV systems must pass the maximum frontal static load (wind load, snow load) of 5400P

A. The maximum static load of 2400Pa on the back side and the hail with A diameter of 25MM impact at A speed of 23M/S are strictly tested, so it will not bring harm to the photovoltaic power generation system.

78. How to deal with the temperature rise and ventilation of solar cells?

The output power of photovoltaic cells will decrease with the rise of temperature. Ventilation and heat dissipation can improve the efficiency of power generation. The most commonly used method is natural wind ventilation.

79. Do photovoltaic power generation systems pose electromagnetic emission hazards to users?

Photovoltaic power generation system is based on the principle of photovoltaic effect generated by light to convert solar energy into electricity, no pollution, no radiation, inverter, distribution cabinet and other electronic devices have passed the EMC(electromagnetic compatibility) test, so there is no harm to human body.

80. Are photovoltaic systems noise hazards?

Photovoltaic power generation system is to convert solar energy into electricity, will not produce noise effect, inverter noise index is not higher than 65 decibels, there is no noise hazard.

81. What should be paid attention to in the fire prevention and fire protection of household distributed photovoltaic power generation system?

Ban stacked near flammable and explosive items, distributed generation system in the event of casualties and property losses caused by the fire immeasurably, in addition to basic fire safety measures, also special remind a photovoltaic system has the function of self testing, and fire prevention, reduce the possibility of a fire, in addition also need every 40 m longest must reserve of fire prevention and maintenance access, and must have a convenient operation of dc system of emergency cut-off switch.

82. When the grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system fails, who should the user report to for repair? Is there a unified national service telephone number?

If the photovoltaic system fails, it should feedback the problem to the installer in the first time, and the installer will make the fault treatment in the shortest time. It is recommended to choose the installer with big brand and good reputation.

Quality Control Section

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83. Why should quality control of distributed photovoltaic power generation system be paid attention to?

First distributed photovoltaic power generation system is combined with a building more, if the system quality problems may cause damage to internal power system equipment, not only may even harm the sub-station and surrounding buildings personnel security, secondly distributed photovoltaic power generation systems for personal use, if the system quality problems may cause damage to electrical equipment. The redistributed power generation system obtains economic benefits by generating capacity. If quality problems exist, the generation capacity and life of the whole system will be affected, and then the income of the whole system will be affected.

84. Does passing of each component mean that the system integration does not need to be tested?

Although the photovoltaic power generation system is composed of various components, the qualified components do not mean that the system integration is qualified. The overall design and configuration of the system, safety and operation performance need to be tested and verified.

85. How to select qualified system accessories and how long is the warranty time?

It is recommended to choose the system accessories products that have passed the national approval and certification bodies. The specifications, models and technical parameters of the system accessories products should conform to the design requirements of the whole system. Generally speaking, the components are required to be guaranteed for five years, and the inverter is required to be guaranteed for at least two years.

86. What product certification is required to obtain national subsidies?

In the grid access acceptance link to ensure that the completed photovoltaic power generation system meets the corresponding safety standards and quality requirements to pass the acceptance, photovoltaic power generation system in the main equipment including components, bus boxes, inverters, etc., are required to have the corresponding domestic certification.

87. How to judge the quality of distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system?

The quality of the distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system can only be determined by the comprehensive testing of the components and the system. The testing content includes the testing of each component and the safety and performance of the system.

88. What maintenance procedures will the supplier take after quality problems arise in the distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system and how long will it take?

Distributed photovoltaic (pv) grid system quality problems after the scene to maintenance personnel need to determine problem, feedback to the supplier, the supplier will usually sent engineers to the scene to confirm the quality problem and solution, if caused by the quality problem of the key equipment, supply chamber of commerce contact equipment manufacturers, equipment manufacturers and division generally within a week will be handled to the scene for repair.

89. How do owners generally judge the merits of their PV system?How to solve the suspected system quality problem?

Owner can preliminary judgment from the following aspects, first of all on the system appearance inspection, such as components, such as array, junction box, if found that the problem can take corresponding measures to solve, check whether power station construction contractors used system components of quality certification, in addition to field test the security of the system, such as ground wire continuity, insulation, whether with lightning protection devices, etc., also need testing system of electrical efficiency, if found the problem, should let the power station construction unit to solve in time.

90. How to judge whether the distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system works stably, whether the power quality meets the requirements, and whether the system failure will cause damage to household appliances?

Generally distributed photovoltaic (pv) grid system which has the function of data monitoring, can through the analysis of the monitoring data to determine whether a system is stable operation, such as conditional can also use the power quality analysis meeting in power station and network power quality testing, look to whether accord with national standard, general photovoltaic system failure cases will have protection device to cut off the power supply, so as not to cause damage to the household electrical appliances.

91. Is the monitoring data of the power generation of the distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system the same as the measurement data of the electricity meter? How big is the error?

Capacity of distributed photovoltaic (pv) grid system monitoring data and electric meter measurement data is not necessarily the same, and such as are in the same network using with electricity metering equipment, also completely with precision, so the data should be the same, but the use of photovoltaic (pv) grid system monitoring equipment is often used in the construction unit itself, and electric meter measuring equipment is equipment of the power sector, so data from devices may also have some gaps, how many error according to the specific circumstances, and electricity and the cost of subsidies and settlement is based on electric power department to install the measuring equipment.

92. How to monitor the online power when connected to the Internet?

Mainly through the current grid photovoltaic power generation system and network installation approved by the local electric power department of electric power meter to monitor, in addition local power debugging center usually can through the remote communication to monitor all Internet power grid photovoltaic system, the owner also can simplify construction of information system, by monitoring and optimization of power on the Internet.

93. Can the generation of the system be monitored online?

The power grid enterprises cooperate with the energy authorities at the corresponding level and carry out the measurement, information monitoring and statistics of distributed power generation within the coverage of the power grid. If the user's photovoltaic system is installed with a corresponding monitoring system, online monitoring of power generation can be realized. In addition, the monitoring system can also realize online monitoring of key equipment parameters, power quality, environmental parameters, etc.

94. What are the currently licensed testing and quality certification bodies for photovoltaic systems and products in China?

The main certification bodies are: Beijing Jianheng Certification Center and China Quality Certification Center.

The main testing institutions are: Chinese Academy of Sciences Solar Photovoltaic System and Wind Power System Quality Testing Center, National Solar Photovoltaic Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, China Electronics Science and Technology Corporation 18th Research Institute, China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation 811th Research Institute, Shenzhen Electronic Products Quality Testing Center, Yang

State photoelectric product testing center, etc.

Cost-effectiveness and business models

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95. How to estimate the investment of household distributed photovoltaic system?How long does it take to recoup the cost?

Investment install home distributed photovoltaic systems depends on the installed capacity and investment are two main conditions, photovoltaic power generation system of the hardware (including pv modules, grid inverter, wire rod, mounting bracket, meter, monitoring equipment, etc.) will cost as the market supply and demand fluctuations and photovoltaic industry technology progress and efficiency improvement and change, and is related to the installation size, general is calculated according to the system of single tile price, in addition to hardware purchase plus system construction, system installation, mode and parallel process of a small fee, the installed capacity, the greater the Some of the underlying charges in the cost structure will be diluted, resulting in a reduction in the cost per unit investment.

Depending on lighting conditions, user-side electricity prices, subsidies and system costs, the cost can be recovered in 6-10 years, and the remaining 15 years of electricity generated will become profits. Togrenner's investment evaluation small software, can roughly calculate a number for reference.

96. How to estimate the operation and maintenance cost of distributed photovoltaic power generation system?

Of distributed photovoltaic system running and maintenance is mainly on the system of mechanical installation, electrical connection in the daily inspection, cleaning of photovoltaic modules on the replacement of some failure parts such as simple operation, the cost is relatively low, for under 10 kw system maintenance cost is almost negligible, but MW level power plant should be budget by 1% - 3% maintenance cost into the system total investment, every time the cost of cleaning per square metre in 0.5 to 0.8 yuan, mainly depends on the local labor costs and operational service personnel.

97. How to estimate the cost per kilowatt hour of distributed photovoltaic system?

Power generation cost and the installation location of artificial cost, resources of sunshine, installation, system investment, local electricity price, useful life, financial cost and so on has the close relation, so KWH cost is definitely not a accurate data, considering these factors, the assumption of distributed photovoltaic life of 20 years, according to different regional resources and technology condition, the degree of distributed photovoltaic electricity cost roughly the range of about 0.7 to 1.4 yuan/KWH.

98. How to calculate the subsidy benefits of distributed photovoltaic power generation owners?

Subsidies income is divided into three parts, part of state subsidies, spontaneous self-used offset is a part of the cost of electricity, remaining power to get to the Internet is a part of the desulfurization of coal purchase prices, which all power for full use of the benefits of subsidies for (local electricity price + distributed generation state subsidies) * all electricity, part of the power of spontaneous self-use, part of the surplus electricity subsidy revenue online (the proportion of spontaneous self-used * local electricity price + + distributed generation subsidies proportion * desulfurization of coal purchase price) * all electricity generated.

99. What are the factors that affect investment returns?

The main reasons that affect the system investment return include power generation design (lighting resources, system conversion efficiency, system maintenance level), initial investment of the system, financial cost, subsidy policy, quality and reliability of the power station and after-sale service. Specifically, how to choose the construction site of the power station, how to choose the power generation technology and suppliers, how to do a good investment income analysis in advance, how to choose the photovoltaic system providers with scale and brand and quality assurance services, how to do a good job in power generation optimization, etc.

What are the construction and business models of distributed photovoltaic power generation systems?

Distributed photovoltaic projects relying on the buildings and facilities should have legitimacy, if the owner has the project units and the project depends on the way of the ownership of the buildings can be used in a self-built, funded by the owners, the owners reap the benefits, if the project units and the building of the project is based on non-uniform and facilities all main body, the project units and buildings and facilities of all the use of buildings and facilities or rental agreement, the funding methods and power users signed contract energy management service agreement.

101. What is contracted energy management?

Contract energy management is a new kind of market-oriented energy-saving mechanism, its essence is to reduce energy costs to pay of the total cost of the project of business mode, this way of saving energy and reducing consumption investment allows customers to use in the future energy saving benefits and equipment upgrades for the factory, in order to reduce running cost, energy-saving benefit or corporate commitment to energy saving project or contract the overall energy costs to provide energy saving services.

102. What are the benefits of installing PV systems for industrial and commercial users?

The advantages of industrial and commercial users installing photovoltaic power generation system are: industrial and commercial power consumption is large, the price is high, the proportion of spontaneous use is large, the recovery period is short, and the yield rate is high. In addition, the photovoltaic system has the social benefits of energy saving and emission reduction, which can help industrial users complete the energy saving and emission reduction targets, at the same time, it can reduce the electricity cost of enterprises and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

103. Can the user apply for bank loan for the construction of distributed photovoltaic power generation system for lack of funds? What does the borrower need to have?

In addition to the project capital and funding, can apply for bank loans to solve, part of Banks and other financial institutions have recently begun to distributed users provide loans and other financial services, such as the national development bank has combined the National Energy Administration formulate "about support distributed generation's opinions on financial services, has been clear about the national development bank for distributed photovoltaic to, such as the form and conditions of the credit support policy, generally in good condition, no significant adverse credit record of enterprise legal person and has full civil liability of natural person can apply for a bank loan.

104. What is the maximum amount of bank loan I can apply for?How long is the term? What's the interest rate?What are the repayment methods?

Reference to China's regulations on investment project capital system, the user should raise at least 20% of the total project investment capital, corresponding to apply for bank loans of up to 80%, with reference to power projects medium and long-term loans, according to the lender and actual project, distributed photovoltaic power generation project loan time limit, generally up to 15 years, at present our country gradually realize the marketization of interest rate, on the basis of the people's bank benchmark interest rates, Banks can according to oneself circumstance with flexible pricing, reimbursement means can generally be practice or equal principal repayment of principal and interest waiting for the forehead.

105. What are the main payment modes for distributed photovoltaic power generation projects?

Classified according to whether the user directly to the bank to apply for a loan, loan mode can be divided into direct loans, to borrow, and system model, also meet the requirements of the bank directly to apply for a loan qualification of the distributed generation investment subject may directly apply for bank loans to support, the other to do not conform to the companies and natural persons directly apply for loans, generally adopts the model of system borrow system also supports, such as the national development bank plans to establish a loan qualification and the ability of commitment shall borrow platform, by the national development bank provide credit to borrow system platform, the platform to season's loan (by commercial Banks), and other ways to provide loans to support, Users can apply for loans from local banks or flat lending platforms according to their own circumstances.

106. What documents do I need to prepare to apply for a bank loan?What are the conditions for loan issuance?

Apply for bank loans to borrowers tend to need to prepare material, natural person identity certificates, certificate of personal assets or business license, the company's articles of association, nearly three years, project finance audit report for the record, grid access approval, land, or lease agreement, roof power purchase agreement, energy management contract and other relevant documents, generally loans should be done before project for the record and the power purchase agreement, energy management contract and other relevant agreements.







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